Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 47, Issue 10, pp 3059–3071 | Cite as

School Functions in Unaffected Siblings of Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Original Paper

Abstract

This study investigated school functioning among unaffected siblings of youths with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identified the correlates for school maladjustment. We recruited 66 youths with a clinical diagnosis of ASD, aged 8–19, their unaffected siblings and 132 typically developing controls (TD). We found that ASD youths had poorer school functions than unaffected siblings and TD. Unaffected siblings had poorer attitude toward schoolwork and more severe behavioral problems at school than TD. Several associated factors for different scholastic functional domains (i.e., academic performance, attitude toward school work, social interactions, behavioral problems) in the siblings included IQ, autistic traits, inattention/oppositional symptoms, sibling relationships, etc. Our findings suggest the need of assessing school functions in unaffected siblings of ASD. Trial registration: Clinical trial registration identifier: NCT01582256

Keywords

Autism Siblings School functioning Predictors Academic performance School social problems 

References

  1. Aldridge, F. J., Gibbs, V. M., Schmidhofer, K., & Williams, M. (2012). Investigating the clinical usefulness of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a tertiary level, autism spectrum disorder specific assessment clinic. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 294–300. doi:10.1007/s10803-011-1242-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrade, B. F., & Tannock, R. (2014). Sustained impact of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity on peer problems: Mediating roles of prosocial skills and conduct problems in a community sample of children. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 45, 318–328. doi:10.1007/s10578-013-0402-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bagenholm, A., & Gillberg, C. (1991). Psychosocial effects on siblings of children with autism and mental retardation: A population-based study. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 35(Pt 4), 291–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagwell, C. L., Molina, B. S., Pelham, W. E. Jr., & Hoza, B. (2001). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and problems in peer relations: Predictions from childhood to adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1285–1292. doi:10.1097/00004583-200111000-00008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bayat, M. (2007). Evidence of resilience in families of children with autism. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR, 51, 702–714. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2007.00960.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Benderix, Y., & Sivberg, B. (2007). Siblings’ experiences of having a brother or sister with autism and mental retardation: A case study of 14 siblings from five families. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 22, 410–418. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2007.08.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ben-Yizhak, N., Yirmiya, N., Seidman, I., Alon, R., Lord, C., & Sigman, M. (2011). Pragmatic language and school related linguistic abilities in siblings of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 750–760. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1096-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bolte, S., Poustka, F., & Constantino, J. N. (2008). Assessing autistic traits: Cross-cultural validation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS). Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research, 1, 354–363. doi:10.1002/aur.49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bolton, P., et al. (1994). A case-control family history study of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 35, 877–900.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Boyd, B. A., Conroy, M. A., Mancil, G. R., Nakao, T., & Alter, P. J. (2007). Effects of circumscribed interests on the social behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1550–1561. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0286-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chandler, S., et al. (2007). Validation of the social communication questionnaire in a population cohort of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 1324–1332. doi:10.1097/chi.0b013e31812f7d8d.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen, C. H., et al. (2014). Genetic analysis of GABRB3 as a candidate gene of autism spectrum disorders. Molecular Autism, 5, 36. doi:10.1186/2040-2392-5-36.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen, S. F., Chien, Y. L., Wu, C. T., Shang, C. Y., Wu, Y. Y., & Gau, S. S. (2016). Deficits in executive functions among youths with autism spectrum disorders: An age-stratified analysis. Psychological Medicine, 46, 1625–1638. doi:10.1017/S0033291715002238.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Chiang, H. L., Chen, Y. J., Lo, Y. C., Tseng, W. Y., & Gau, S. S. (2015). Altered white matter tract property related to impaired focused attention, sustained attention, cognitive impulsivity and vigilance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN, 40, 325–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chiang, H. L., & Gau, S. S. (2014). Impact of executive functions on school and peer functions in youths with ADHD. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35, 963–972. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.02.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chiang, H. L., & Gau, S. S. (2015). Comorbid psychiatric conditions as mediators to predict later social adjustment in youths with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 6, 12450.Google Scholar
  19. Chiang, H. L., et al. (2017). School dysfunction in youths with autistic spectrum disorders in Taiwan: The effect of subtype and ADHD. Autism Research (under 2nd review).Google Scholar
  20. Chien, H. Y., Gau, S. S., & Isaac Tseng, W. Y. (2016). Deficient visuospatial working memory functions and neural correlates of the default-mode network in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Research, 9, 1058–1072.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chien, H. Y., Lin, H. Y., Lai, M. C., Gau, S. S., Tseng W. Y. (2015a). Hyperconnectivity of the right posterior temporo-parietal junction predicts social difficulties in boys with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Research, 8, 427–441.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Chien, Y. L., et al. (2017b). The central nervous system patterning gene variants associated with clinical symptom severity of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 9, 30472–30475.Google Scholar
  23. Chien, Y. L., Gau, S. S., Shang, C. Y., Chiu, Y. N., Tsai, W. C., & Wu, Y. Y. (2015b). Visual memory and sustained attention impairment in youths with autism spectrum disorders. Psychological Medicine, 45, 2263–2273. doi:10.1017/S0033291714003201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chien, Y. L., et al. (2017a). ADHD-related symptoms and attention profiles in the unaffected siblings of probands with autism spectrum disorder: Focus on the subtypes of autism and Asperger’s disorder. Molecular Autism (Accepted).Google Scholar
  25. Constantino, J. N., et al. (2003). Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: Comparison of the social responsiveness scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 427–433.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Clara, I. P. (2000). The parental bonding instrument: Confirmatory evidence for a three-factor model in a psychiatric clinical sample and in the National Comorbidity Survey. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 35, 353–357.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dempsey, A. G., Llorens, A., Brewton, C., Mulchandani, S., & Goin-Kochel, R. P. (2012). Emotional and behavioral adjustment in typically developing siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 1393–1402. doi:10.1007/s10803-011-1368-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Eaves, L. C., Wingert, H. D., Ho, H. H., & Mickelson, E. C. (2006). Screening for autism spectrum disorders with the social communication questionnaire. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP, 27, S95–S103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Estes, A., Rivera, V., Bryan, M., Cali, P., & Dawson, G. (2011). Discrepancies between academic achievement and intellectual ability in higher-functioning school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 1044–1052. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1127-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Fiscella, K., & Kitzman, H. (2009). Disparities in academic achievement and health: The intersection of child education and health policy. Pediatrics, 123, 1073–1080. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-0533.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fombonne, E., Bolton, P., Prior, J., Jordan, H., & Rutter, M. (1997). A family study of autism: Cognitive patterns and levels in parents and siblings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 38, 667–683.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Forrest, C. B., Bevans, K. B., Riley, A. W., Crespo, R., & Louis, T. A. (2011). School outcomes of children with special health care needs. Pediatrics, 128, 303–312. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3347.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Gau, S. S. (2007). Parental and family factors for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Taiwanese children. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41, 688–696. doi:10.1080/00048670701449187.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gau, S. S., et al. (2008a). Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale—parent form. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 17, 35–44. doi:10.1002/mpr.237.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gau, S. S., et al. (2008b). Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale—parent form. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 17, 35–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gau, S. S., et al. (2010). Behavioral problems and parenting style among Taiwanese children with autism and their siblings. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 64, 70–78. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2009.02034.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gau, S. S., & Chang, J. P. (2013). Maternal parenting styles and mother-child relationship among adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 1581–1594. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2013.02.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gau, S. S., Shen, H. Y., Chou, M. C., Tang, C. S., Chiu, Y. N., & Gau, C. S. (2006a). Determinants of adherence to methylphenidate and the impact of poor adherence on maternal and family measures. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 16, 286–297. doi:10.1089/cap.2006.16.286.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gau, S. S., Shen, H. Y., Soong, W. T., & Gau, C. S. (2006b). An open-label, randomized, active-controlled equivalent trial of osmotic release oral system methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Taiwan. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 16, 441–455. doi:10.1089/cap.2006.16.441.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gau, S. S., Tseng, W. L., Tseng, W. Y., Wu, Y. H., & Lo, Y. C. (2015). Association between microstructural integrity of frontostriatal tracts and school functioning: ADHD symptoms and executive function as mediators. Psychological Medicine, 45, 529–543. doi:10.1017/S0033291714001664.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gau, S. S., et al. (2011). Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the social communication questionnaire. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 809–818. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2010.09.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gau, S. S., Liu, L. T., Wu, Y. Y., Chiu, Y. N., & Tsai, W. C. (2013). Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the social responsiveness scale. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7, 349–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Greene, R. W., Biederman, J., Zerwas, S., Monuteaux, M. C., Goring, J. C., & Faraone, S. V. (2002). Psychiatric comorbidity, family dysfunction, and social impairment in referred youth with oppositional defiant disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1214–1224.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Griffith, G. M., Hastings, R. P., & Petalas, M. A. (2014). Fathers’ and mothers’ ratings of behavioral and emotional problems in siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 1230–1235. doi:10.1007/s10803-013-1969-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hastings, R. P., Kovshoff, H., Brown, T., Ward, N. J., Espinosa, F. D., & Remington, B. (2005). Coping strategies in mothers and fathers of preschool and school-age children with autism. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 9, 377–391. doi:10.1177/1362361305056078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hastings, R. P., & Petalas, M. A. (2014). Self-reported behaviour problems and sibling relationship quality by siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder. Child: Care, Health and Development, 40, 833–839. doi:10.1111/cch.12131.Google Scholar
  47. Hoekstra, R. A., Bartels, M., Hudziak, J. J., Van Beijsterveldt, T. C., & Boomsma, D. I. (2007). Genetic and environmental covariation between autistic traits and behavioral problems. Twin Research and Human Genetics: The Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies, 10, 853–860. doi:10.1375/twin.10.6.853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hoza, B. (2007). Peer functioning in children with ADHD. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32, 655–663. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsm024.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hsiao, M. N., Tseng, W. L., Huang, H. Y., & Gau, S. S. (2013). Effects of autistic traits on social and school adjustment in children and adolescents: The moderating roles of age and gender. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 254–265. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2012.08.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. John, K., Gammon, G. D., Prusoff, B. A., & Warner, V. (1987). The social adjustment inventory for children and adolescents (SAICA): Testing of a new semistructured interview. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 898–911.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Johnson, S., Hollis, C., Hennessy, E., Kochhar, P., Wolke, D., & Marlow, N. (2011). Screening for autism in preterm children: Diagnostic utility of the social communication questionnaire. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 96, 73–77. doi:10.1136/adc.2010.194795.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Jokiranta-Olkoniemi, E., et al. (2016). Risk of psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders among siblings of probands with autism spectrum disorders. JAMA Psychiatry, 73, 622–629. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.0495.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kaminsky, L., & Dewey, D. (2001). Siblings relationships of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 399–410.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kaminsky, L., & Dewey, D. (2002). Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 43, 225–232.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kawabata, Y., Tseng, W. L., & Gau, S. S. (2012). Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social and school adjustment: The moderating roles of age and parenting. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 177–188. doi:10.1007/s10802-011-9556-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Knott, F., Lewis, C., & Williams, T. (1995). Sibling interaction of children with learning disabilities: A comparison of autism and Down’s syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 36, 965–976.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Lau, W. Y., et al. (2013). Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the autism spectrum quotient (AQ). Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 294–305. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2012.08.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Le Couteur, A., et al. (1996). A broader phenotype of autism: The clinical spectrum in twins. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 37, 785–801.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Le-Scherban, F., Diez Roux, A. V., Li, Y., & Morgenstern, H. (2014). Does academic achievement during childhood and adolescence benefit later health? Annals of Epidemiology, 24, 344–355. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.02.008.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Lin, H. Y., Tseng, W. I., Lai, M. C., Chang, Y. T., & Gau, S. S. (2016). Shared atypical brain anatomy and intrinsic functional architecture in male youth with autism spectrum disorder and their unaffected brothers. Psychological Medicine, 9, 1–16.Google Scholar
  61. Liu, C. Y., Huang, W. L., Kao, W. C., & Gau, S. S. (2017). Influence of disruptive behavior disorders on academic performance and school functions of youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 6, 017–0710.Google Scholar
  62. Liu, X., et al. (2016). Genome-wide association study of autism spectrum disorder in the East Asian populations. Autism Research, 9, 340–349. doi:10.1002/aur.1536.
  63. Lo, Y. C., Chen, Y. J., Hsu, Y. C., Tseng, W. I., & Gau, S. S. (2017). Reduced tract integrity of the model for social communication is a neural substrate of social communication deficits in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 58, 576–585. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12641.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–685.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lovell, B., & Wetherell, M. A. (2016). The psychophysiological impact of childhood autism spectrum disorder on siblings. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 49–50, 226–234. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2015.11.023.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Macks, R. J., & Reeve, R. E. (2007). The adjustment of non-disabled siblings of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1060–1067. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0249-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Mohammadi, M., & Zarafshan, H. (2014). Family function, parenting style and broader autism phenotype as predicting factors of psychological adjustment in typically developing siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 9, 55–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Opperman, S., & Alant, E. (2003). The coping responses of the adolescent siblings of children with severe disabilities. Disability and Rehabilitation, 25, 441–454. doi:10.1080/0963828031000069735.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Orsmond, G. I., & Seltzer, M. M. (2007). Siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorders across the life course. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 13, 313–320. doi:10.1002/mrdd.20171.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Parker, G. (1989). The parental bonding instrument: Psychometric properties reviewed. Psychiatric Developments, 7, 317–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Parker, J. G., Rubin, K. H., Erath, S. A., Wojslawowicz, J. C., & Buskirk, A. A. (2015). Peer relationships, child development, and adjustment: A developmental psychopathology perspective developmental psychopathology.(pp. 419–493). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  72. Pinquart, M., Juang, L. P., & Silbereisen, R. K. (2003). Self-efficacy and successful school-to-work transition: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63, 329–346. doi:10.1016/S0001-8791(02)00031-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Piven, J. (2001). The broad autism phenotype: A complementary strategy for molecular genetic studies of autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 105, 34–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Ramsdal, G., Bergvik, S., & Wynn, R. (2015). Parent-child attachment, academic performance and the process of high-school dropout: A narrative review. Attachment & Human Development, 17, 522–545. doi:10.1080/14616734.2015.1072224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rao, P. A., Beidel, D. C., & Murray, M. J. (2008). Social skills interventions for children with Asperger’s syndrome or high-functioning autism: A review and recommendations. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 353–361. doi:10.1007/s10803-007-0402-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Reese, R. M., Richman, D. M., Belmont, J. M., & Morse, P. (2005). Functional characteristics of disruptive behavior in developmentally disabled children with and without autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 419–428. doi:10.1007/s10803-005-5032-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Reyes, M. R., Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., White, M., & Salovey, P. (2012). Classroom emotional climate, student engagement, and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 700–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rindennann, H., & Neubauer, A. C. (2004). Processing speed, intelligence, creativity, and school performance: Testing of causal hypotheses using structural equation models. Intelligence, 32, 573–589. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2004.06.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rivers, J. W., & Stoneman, Z. (2003). Sibling relationships when a child has autism: Marital stress and support coping. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 383–394.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Ross, P., & Cuskelly, M. (2006). Adjustment, sibling problems and coping strategies of brothers and sisters of children with autistic spectrum disorder. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 31, 77–86. doi:10.1080/13668250600710864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rotheram-Fuller, E., Kasari, C., Chamberlain, B., & Locke, J. (2010). Social involvement of children with autism spectrum disorders in elementary school classrooms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 51, 1227–1234. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02289.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Rutter, M., et al. (2003). The social communication questionnaire. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  83. Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C., et al. (2007). Chinese version of autism diagnostic interview–revised. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Service.Google Scholar
  84. Sandin, S., Lichtenstein, P., Kuja-Halkola, R., Larsson, H., Hultman, C. M., & Reichenberg, A. (2014). The familial risk of autism. JAMA, 311, 1770–1777. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.4144.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Shivers, C. M., Deisenroth, L. K., & Taylor, J. L. (2013). Patterns and predictors of anxiety among siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 1336–1346. doi:10.1007/s10803-012-1685-7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Spinath, B., Spinath, F. M., Harlaar, N., & Plomin, R. (2006). Predicting school achievement from general cognitive ability, self-perceived ability, and intrinsic value. Intelligence, 34, 363–374. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2005.11.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Swanson, J. M., et al. (2001). Clinical relevance of the primary findings of the MTA: Success rates based on severity of ADHD and ODD symptoms at the end of treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 168–179. doi:10.1097/00004583-200102000-00011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Tseng, W. L., Kawabata, Y., & Gau, S. S. (2011). Social adjustment among Taiwanese children with symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD comorbid with ODD. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 42, 134–151. doi:10.1007/s10578-010-0204-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Tseng, W. L., Kawabata, Y., Gau, S. S., Banny, A. M., Lingras, K. A., & Crick, N. R. (2012). Relations of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity to preadolescent peer functioning: The mediating roles of aggressive and prosocial behaviors. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology: The Official Journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division, 53(41), 275–287. doi:10.1080/15374416.2012.656556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Verte, S., Roeyers, H. & Buysse, A. (2003). Behavioural problems, social competence and self-concept in siblings of children with autism. Child: Care, Health and Development, 29, 193–205.Google Scholar
  91. Wechsler, D. (2004). The Wechsler intelligence scale for children (4th ed.). London: Pearson.Google Scholar
  92. Wu, S. Y., & Gau, S. S. (2013). Correlates for academic performance and school functioning among youths with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 505–515. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2012.09.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Yin, C. L., et al. (2016). Genome-wide analysis of copy number variations identifies PARK2 as a candidate gene for autism spectrum disorder. Molecular Autism, 7, 23. doi:10.1186/s13229-016-0087-7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yi-Ling Chien
    • 1
    • 2
  • En-Nien Tu
    • 3
  • Susan Shur-Fen Gau
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryNational Taiwan University Hospital and College of MedicineTaipeiTaiwan, ROC
  2. 2.Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of MedicineNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan, ROC
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryNational Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu BranchHsinchuTaiwan, ROC
  4. 4.Department of Psychology and Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind SciencesNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan, ROC

Personalised recommendations