Parent Support of Preschool Peer Relationships in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
- 1.2k Downloads
Preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD are at high-risk (HR) for ASD and related challenges, but little is known about their emerging peer competence and friendships. Parents are the main providers of peer-relationship opportunities during preschool. Understanding parental challenges supporting early peer relationships is needed for optimal peer competence and friendships in children with ASD. We describe differences in peer relationships among three groups of preschool-aged children (15 HR-ASD, 53 HR-NonASD, 40 low-risk, LR), and examine parent support activities at home and arranging community-based peer activities. Children with ASD demonstrated precursors to poor peer competence and friendship outcomes. Parents in the HR group showed resilience in many areas, but providing peer opportunities for preschool-age children with ASD demanded significant adaptations.
KeywordsAutism Parent Sibling Peer relations Preschool High risk
This research was supported by grants from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Institute of Mental Health (R01 HD055741) and grant U54 HD083091 to the University of Washington’s Center on Human Development and Disability, Autism Speaks (6020), and the Simons Foundation (140209). We wish to thank the children and parents who participated in this study. We are grateful to Jill J. Locke, PhD for her insights on the field of peer relations in ASD. The Infant Brain Imaging Study (IBIS) Network is an NIH funded Autism Center of Excellence project and consists of a consortium of seven universities in the U.S. and Canada. Clinical Sites: University of North Carolina: J. Piven (IBIS Network PI), H.C. Hazlett, J.C. Chappell; University of Washington: S. Dager, A. Estes, D. Shaw; Washington University: K. Botteron, R. McKinstry, J. Constantino, J. Pruett; Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia: R. Schultz, S. Paterson; University of Alberta: L. Zwaigenbaum; Data Coordinating Center: Montreal Neurological Institute: A.C. Evans, D.L. Collins, G.B. Pike, P. Kostopolous, S. Das; Image Processing Core: University of Utah: G. Gerig; University of North Carolina: M. Styner; Statistical Analysis Core: University of North Carolina: H. Gu; Genetics Analysis Core: University of North Carolina: P. Sullivan, F. Wright.
AE conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination and drafted the manuscript; JM participated in data analysis and interpretation of the data; TSJ participated in data analysis, coordination of the study and performed the measurement; SRD participated in the design and coordination of the study and reviewed early drafts of the manuscript; AR performed the measurement and participated in conceptualizing and reviewing early manuscript drafts; KB participated in design and coordination of the study; HH participated in design and coordination of the study; RTS participated in design and coordination of the study, LZ participated in design and coordination of the study; JP participated in the design and coordination of the study; MJG participated in the design of the study and helped to conceptualize the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declares that they have no conflicts of interests.
- Achenbach, T. M. (2009). The achenbach system of empirically based assessment (aseba): Development, findings, theory, and applications. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families.Google Scholar
- Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families.Google Scholar
- Carneiro, P., Crawford, C., Goodman, A. (2007). The impact of early cognitive and non-cognitive skills on later outcomes. London, UK: Centre for the Economics of Education, London School of Economics.Google Scholar
- Charman, T., Young, G. S., Brian, J., Carter, A., Carver, L. J., Chawarska, K., Curtin, S., Dobkins, K., Elsabbagh, M., Georgiades, S., Hertz-Picciotto, I., Hutman, T., Iverson, J. M., Jones, E. J., Landa, R., Macari, S., Messinger, D. S., Nelson, C. A., Ozonoff, S., Saulnier, C., Stone, W. L., Tage-Flusberg, H., Webb, S. J., Yirmiya, N., & Zwaigenbaum, L. (2017). Non-ASD outcomes at 36 months in siblings at familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD): A baby sibling research consortium (BSRC) study. Autism Research, 10(1), 169–178. doi: 10.1002/aur.0.1669.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Conover, W. J. (1999). Practical nonparametric statistics, Third Edition (pp. 396–406) New Jersey: WileyGoogle Scholar
- Estes, A., Munson, J., Dawson, G., Koehler, E., Zhou, X., & Abbott, R. (2009). Parenting stress and psychological functioning among mothers of preschool children with autism and developmental delay. Autism: International Journal of Research and Practice, 13(4), 375–387. doi: 10.1177/1362361309105658. (PMC2965631).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Guralnick, M., Connor, R., Neville, B., & Hammond, M. (2008). Developmentally delayed children’s influence attempts with mothers predict interactions with peers over time. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 238–248. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2008.02.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Locke, J., Ishijima, E. H., Kasari, C., & London, N. (2010). Loneliness, friendship quality and the social networks of adolescents with high-functioning autism in an inclusive school setting. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 10(2), 74–81. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-3802.2010.01148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P.C., Risi, S. (2000). Autism diagnostic observation schedule. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Maxwell, M. (1992). Manual for the family interview for genetic studies (FIGS). Bethesda MD: National Institute of Mental Health.Google Scholar
- Messinger, D., Young, G. S., Ozonoff, S., Dobkins, K., Carter, A., Zwaigenbaum, L., Landa, R. J., Charman, T., Stone, W. L., Constantino, J. N., Hutman, T., Carver, L. J., Bryson, S., Iverson, J. M., Strauss, M. S., Rogers, S. J., Sigman, M. (2013). Beyond autism: A baby siblings research consortium study of high-risk children at three years of age. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(3), 300–308.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen scales of early learning: AGS edition. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service Publishing.Google Scholar
- Ozonoff, S., Young, G. S., Belding, A., Hill, M., Hill, A., Hutman, T., Johnson, S., Miller, M., Rogers, S. J., Schwichtenberg, A. J., Steinfeld, M., Iosif, A. M. (2014). The broader autism phenotype in infancy: When does it emerge? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(4), 398–407. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.12.020.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Ozonoff, S., Young, G. S., Carter, A., Messinger, D., Yirmiya, N., Zwaigenbaum, L., Bryson, S., Carver, L. J., Constantino, J. N., & Dobkins, K. (2011). Recurrence risk for autism spectrum disorders: A baby siblings research consortium study. Pediatrics, 128(3), e488–e495.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Pohlert, T. (2014). The Pairwise Multiple Comparison of Mean Ranks Package (PMCMR). R package, URL: http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=PMCMR>.
- Rowley, E., Chandler, S., Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Loucas, T., & Charman, T. (2012). The experience of friendship, victimization, and bullying in children with an autism spectrum disorder: Associations with child characteristics and school placement. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(3), 1126–1134. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2012.03.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rutter, M., Bailey, A., Lord, C., Berument, S. (2003a). Social communication questionnaire. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Rutter, M., LeCouteur, A., Lord, C. (2003b). Autism diagnostic interview-revised. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Service.Google Scholar
- Sigman, M., Ruskin, E., Arbeile, S., Corona, R., Dissanayake, C., Espinosa, M., & Zierhut, C. (1999). Continuity and change in the social competence of children with autism, down syndrome, and developmental delays. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 64(1), 1–114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sparrow, S., Balla, D., Cicchetti, D. (2005). Vineland adaptive behavior scales: Second edition. Shoreview, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
- Véronneau, M., Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., Dishion, T. J., & Tremblay, R. E. (2010). Transactional analysis of the reciprocal links between peer experiences and academic achievement from middle childhood to early adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 46(4), 773–790. 10.1037/a0019816.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wentzel, K. R., & Caldwell, K. (1997). Friendships, peer acceptance, and group membership: relations to academic achievement in middle school. Child Development, 68(6), 1198–1209. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1132301.
- Whalon, K. J., Conroy, M. A., Martinez, J. R., & Werch, B. L. (2015). School-based peer-related social competence interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder: A meta-analysis and descriptive review of single case research design studies. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 1513–1531.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wolff, J. J., Botteron, K. N., Dager, S.R., Elison, J. T., Estes, A. M., Gu, H., Hazlett, H. C., Pandey, J., Paterson, S. J., Schultz, R. T., Zwaigenbaum, L., Piven, J. (2014). Longitudinal patterns of repetitive behavior in toddlers with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12207 .PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Zablotsky, B., Bradshaw, C. P., & Stuart, E. A. (2013). The association between mental health, stress, and coping supports in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(6), 1380–1393. doi: 10.1007/s10803-012-1693-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar