The Longitudinal Effects of Parenting on Adaptive Behavior in Children with Fragile X Syndrome
Several studies have reported declines in adaptive behavior amongst children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) starting in middle childhood. We examined the effects of maternal responsivity on adaptive behavior in 55 children with FXS visited 5–6 times in their homes from early through middle childhood. Our analyses indicated that sustained maternal responsivity had a significant positive impact on the trajectories of communication and to a lesser extent other adaptive behavior domains through middle childhood with many effects remaining significant after controlling for autism symptoms and developmental level. For children who showed declines in adaptive behavior during middle childhood, sustained high levels of maternal responsivity minimized the amount of decline observed in the communication, socialization, and daily living domains.
KeywordsFragile X syndrome Maternal responsivity Adaptive behavior
This research was supported by National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Grants P30 HD003110, P30 HD002528, and RO1-HD84663. We wish to express our profound gratitude to the 55 families from across the United States that participated in this research.
SW participated in the conception and coordination of the study, the drafting of the manuscript, and the design and interpretation of the data. NB participated in the conception and coordination of the study, and the design and interpretation of the data. KF participated on the data analysis and interpretation of the data. LH participated in the interpretation of the data and the preparation of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in this study involved human participants and were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee at the University of Kansas and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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