Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 260–274

Investigating the Receptive-Expressive Vocabulary Profile in Children with Idiopathic ASD and Comorbid ASD and Fragile X Syndrome

Original Paper

Abstract

Previous work has noted that some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display weaknesses in receptive vocabulary relative to expressive vocabulary abilities. The current study extended previous work by examining the receptive-expressive vocabulary profile in boys with idiopathic ASD and boys with concomitant ASD and fragile X syndrome (ASD + FXS). On average, boys with ASD + FXS did not display the same atypical receptive-expressive profile as boys with idiopathic ASD. Notably, there was variation in vocabulary abilities and profiles in both groups. Although we did not identify predictors of receptive-expressive differences, we demonstrated that nonverbal IQ and expressive vocabulary positively predicted concurrent receptive vocabulary knowledge and receptive vocabulary predicted expressive vocabulary. We discuss areas of overlap and divergence in subgroups of ASD.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorder Fragile X syndrome Language phenotype Vocabulary 

References

  1. Abbeduto, L., & Hagerman, R. J. (1997). Language and communication in fragile X syndrome. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 3, 313–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbeduto, L., McDuffie, A., & Thurman, A. J. (2014). The fragile X syndrome-autism comorbidity: What do we really know? Frontiers in Genetics, 5, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adlof, S. M., Klusek, J., Shinkareva, S. V., Robinson, M. L., & Roberts, J. E. (2015). Phonological awareness and reading in boys with fragile X syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 56, 30–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bailey, D. B., Hatton, D. D., Skinner, M., & Mesibov, G. (2001). Autistic behavior, FMR1 protein, and developmental trajectories in young males with fragile X syndrome. Journal of Aurtism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 165–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbaro, J., & Dissanayake, C. (2012). Developmental profiles of infants and toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders identified prospectively in a community-based setting. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 1939–1948.Google Scholar
  6. Bassell, G. J., & Warren, S. T. (2008). Fragile X syndrome: Loss of local mRNA regulation alters synaptic development and function. Neuron, 60, 201–214.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Belmonte, M. K., & Bourgeron, T. (2006). Fragile X syndrome and autism at the intersection of genetic and neural networks. Nature Neuroscience, 9, 1221–1225.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bishop, D. V. M. (1983). Test for the reception of grammar. Manchester: University of Manchester.Google Scholar
  9. Bottcher, L. (2010). Children with spastic cerebral palsy, their cognitive functioning, and social participation: A review. Child Neuropsychology, 16, 209–228.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brady, N. C., Storkel, H. L., Bushnell, P., Barker, R. M., Saunders, K., & Daniels, D. (2015). Investigating a multimodal intervention for children with limited expressive vocabularies associated with autism. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 24, 438–459.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Budimirovic, D. B., & Kaufmann, W. E. (2011). What can we learn about autism from studying fragile X syndrome? Developmental Neuroscience, 33, 379–394.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Charman, T., Drew, A., Baird, C., & Baird, G. (2003). Measuring early language development in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (Infant Form). Journal of Child Language, 30, 213–236.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Charman, T., Pickles, A., Simonoff, E., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Baird, G. (2011). IQ in children with autism spectrum disorders: Data from the special needs and autism project (SNAP). Psychological Medicine, 41, 619–627.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1997). Peabody picture vocabulary test (3rd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  15. Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, D. M. (2007). Peabody picture vocabulary test (4th ed.). Bloomington, MN: NCS Pearson.Google Scholar
  16. Ellis Weismer, S., Lord, C., & Esler, A. (2010). Early language patterns of toddlers on the autism spectrum compared to toddlers with developmental delay. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 1259–1273.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Fenson, L., Dale, P. S., Reznick, J. S., Thal, D. J., Bates, E., Hartung, J. P., Pethick, S. J., & Reilly, J. S. (1993). MacArthur communicative development inventory: Users guide and technical manual. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing CompanyGoogle Scholar
  18. Finestack, L. H., Sterling, A. M., & Abbeduto, L. (2013). Discriminating Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome based on language ability. Journal of Child Language, 40, 244–265.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Gray, S., Plante, E., Vance, R., & Henrichsen, M. (1999). The diagnostic accuracy of four vocabulary tests administered to preschool-age children. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in the Schools, 30, 196–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Haebig, E., Sterling, A., & Hoover, J. (2016). Examining the language phenotype in children with typical development, specific language impairment, and fragile X syndrome. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, 1–13.Google Scholar
  21. Hagerman, R. J., & Hagerman, P. J. (2002). Fragile X syndrome. In P. Howlin & O. Udwin (Eds.), Outcomes in neurodevelopmental and genetic disorders (Vol. 3460, pp. 198–219). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hall, S. S., Lightbody, A. A., & Reiss, A. L. (2008). Compulsive, self-injurious, and autistic behavior in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 113, 44–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Harris, S. W., Hessl, D., Goodlin-Jones, B., Ferranti, J., Tassone, F., Hagerman, P. J., Herman, K., & Hagerman, R. J. (2008). Autism profiles of males with fragile X syndrome. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 113, 427–438.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Hatton, D. D., Sideris, J., Skinner, M., Mankowski, J., Bailey, D. B., Roberts, J., & Mirrett, P. (2006). Autistic behavior in children with fragile X syndrome: Prevalence, stability, and the impact of FMRP. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 1813, 1804–1813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hendrick, D., Prather, E., & Tobin, A. (1984). Sequenced inventory of communication development (Revised ed.) (2nd ed.). Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  26. Hernandez, R. N., Feinberg, R. L., Vaurio, R., Passanante, N. M., Thompson, R. E., & Kaufmann, W. E. (2009). Autism spectrum disorder in fragile X syndrome: A longitudinal evaluation. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A, 149, 1125–1137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hessl, D., Nguyen, D. V., Green, C., Chavez, A., Tassone, F., Hagerman, R. J., ... Hall, S. (2009). A solution to limitations of cognitive testing in children with intellectual disabilities: The case of fragile X syndrome. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 1, 33–45.Google Scholar
  28. Hooper, S. R., Hatton, D. D., Baranek, G. T., Roberts, J. P., & Bailey, D. B. (2000). Nonverbal assessment of IQ, attention, and memory abilities in children with fragile-X syndrome using the leiter-r. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 18, 255–267.Google Scholar
  29. Hudry, K., Chandler, S., Bedford, R., Pasco, G., Gliga, T., Elsabbagh, M., Johnson, M. H., & Charman, T. (2014). Early language profiles in infants at high-risk for autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Aurtism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 154–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hudry, K., Leadbitter, K., Temple, K., Slonims, V., McConachie, H., Aldred, C., Howlin, P., & Charman, T. (2010). Preschoolers with autism show greater impairment in receptive compared with expressive language abilities. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 45, 681–690.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Jarrold, C., Boucher, J., & Russell, J. (1997). Language profiles in children with autism. Autism, 1, 57–76.Google Scholar
  32. Jiang, Y.-H., Wang, Y., Wang, P., Xu, X., Choy, K. W., Nolen Pursley, A., & Cheung, S. W. (2014). Genetics of autism spectrum disorders: The opportunity and challenge in the genomic era. Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, 51, 249–262.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Kjelgaard, M., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2001). An investigation of language impairment in autism: Implications for genetic subgroups. Language and Cognitive Processes, 16, 287–308.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Klusek, J., Hunt, A. W., Mirrett, P. L., Hatton, D. D., Hooper, S. R., Roberts, J. E., & Bailey, D. B. (2015). Reading and phonological skills in boys with fragile X syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 1699–1711.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Klusek, J., Martin, G. E., & Losh, M. (2014a). A comparison of pragmatic language in boys with autism and fragile X syndrome. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 57, 1692–1707.Google Scholar
  36. Klusek, J., Martin, G. E., & Losh, M. (2014b). Consistency between research and clinical diagnoses of autism among boys and girls with fragile X syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 58, 940–952.Google Scholar
  37. Kover, S. T., McDuffie, A. S., Hagerman, R. J., & Abbeduto, L. (2013). Receptive vocabulary in boys with autism spectrum disorder: Cross-sectional developmental trajectories. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 2696–2709.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Kwok, E. Y. L., Brown, H. M., Smyth, R. E., & Oram Cardy, J. (2015). Meta-analysis of receptive and expressive language skills in autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 9, 202–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lewis, P., Abbeduto, L., Murphy, M., Richmond, E. K., Giles, N., Bruno, L., & Schroeder, S. (2006). Cognitive, language and social-cognitive skills of individuals with fragile X syndrome with and without autism. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50, 532–545.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. (2012). Autism diagnostic observation schedule (2nd edn.). Torrence, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  41. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. S., & Risi, S. (1999). Autism diagnostic observation schedule: Generic. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  42. Luyster, R., Kadlec, M. B., Carter, A., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2008). Language assessment and development in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1426–1438.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Luyster, R., Lopez, K., & Lord, C. (2007). Characterizing communicative development in children referred for autism spectrum disorders using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI). Journal of Child Language, 34, 623–654.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Maljaars, J., Noens, I., Scholte, E., & van Berckelaer-Onnes, I. (2012). Language in low-functioning children with autistic disorder: Differences between receptive and expressive skills and concurrent predictors of language. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 2181–2191.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Martin, G. E., Losh, M., Estigarribia, B., Sideris, J., & Roberts, J. E. (2013). Longitudinal profiles of expressive vocabulary, syntax and pragmatic language in boys with fragile X syndrome or Down syndrome. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 48, 432–443.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. McDuffie, A., Abbeduto, L., Lewis, P., Kover, S., Kim, J. S., Weber, A., & Brown, W. T. (2010). Autism spectrum disorder in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome: Within-syndrome differences and age-related changes. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 115, 307–326.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. McDuffie, A., Kover, S. T., Abbeduto, L., Lewis, P., & Brown, W. T. (2012). Profiles of receptive and expressive language abilities in males with comorbid fragile X syndrome and autism. American Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 117, 18–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McDuffie, A., Kover, S. T., Hagerman, R., & Abbeduto, L. (2013). Investigating word learning in fragile X syndrome: A fast-mapping study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 1676–1691.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. McDuffie, A., Thurman, A. J., Hagerman, R. J., & Abbeduto, L. (2015). Symptoms of autism in males with fragile X syndrome: A comparison to nonsyndromic ASD using current ADI-R scores. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 1925–1937.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. McGregor, K. K., Berns, A. J., Owen, A. J., Michels, S. A., Duff, D., Bahnsen, A. J., & Lloyd, M. (2012). Associations between syntax and the lexicon among children with or without ASD and language impairment. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 35–47.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen scales of early learning (MSEL). Circle Pines, MN: AGS.Google Scholar
  52. Persico, A. M., & Bourgeron, T. (2006). Searching for ways out of the autism maze: genetic, epigenetic and environmental clues. Trends in Neurosciences, 29, 349–358.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Philofsky, A., Hepburn, S. L., Hayes, A., Hagerman, R., & Rogers, S. J. (2004). Linguistic and cognitive functioning and autism symptoms in young children with fragile X syndrome. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 109, 208–218.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Pickles, A., Anderson, D. K., & Lord, C. (2014). Heterogeneity and plasticity in the development of language: A 17-year follow-up of children referred early for possible autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 1354–1362.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders. (2007). Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, United States, 2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Surveillance Summaries, 56 (SS-1), 12–28.Google Scholar
  56. Price, J., Roberts, J., Vandergrift, N., & Martin, G. (2007). Language comprehension in boys with fragile X syndrome and boys with Down syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 51, 318–326.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Price, J. R., Roberts, J. E., Hennon, E. A., Berni, M. C., Anderson, K. L., & Sideris, J. (2008). Syntactic complexity during conversation of boys with fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 51, 3–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Renfrew, C. E. (1988). Renfrew action picture test. Bicester: Winslow Press Ltd.Google Scholar
  59. Renfrew, C. E. (2010). Word finding vocabulary test. (S. P. Limited, Ed.).Google Scholar
  60. Reynell, J., & Gruber, C. P. (1990). Reynell developmental language scales: Manual. Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  61. Roberts, J. A., Rice, M. L., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2004). Tense marking in children with autism. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25, 429–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Roberts, J. E., Hennon, E. A., Price, J. R., Dear, E., Anderson, K., & Vandergrift, N. A. (2007). Expressive language during conversational speech in boys with fragile X syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 112, 1–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Roberts, J. E., Mirrett, P., & Burchinal, M. (2001). Receptive and expressive communication development of young males with fragile X syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 106, 216–230.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Roberts, J. E., Price, J., Barnes, E., Nelson, L., Burchinal, M., Hennon, E. A., Moskowitz, L., Edwards, A., Malkin, C., Anderson, K., Misenheimer, J., & Hooper, S. R. (2007). Receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and speech production of boys with fragile X syndrome in comparison to boys with down syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 112, 177–193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Roberts, J. E., Schaaf, J. M., Skinner, M., Wheeler, A. C., Hooper, S. R., Hatton, D. D., & Bailey, D. B. (2005). Academic skills of boys with fragile X syndrome: Profiles and predictors. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 110, 107–120.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Rogers, S. J., Wehner, E. A., & Hagerman, R. (2001). The behavioral phenotype in fragile X: Symptoms of autism in very young children with fragile X syndrome, idiopathic autism, and other developmental disorders. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 22, 165–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Roid, G., & Miller, L. (1997). Leiter international performance scale: Revised. Wood Dale, IL: Stoelting.Google Scholar
  68. Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Autism diagnostic interview: Revised. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  69. Schlichting, J. E. P. T., Van Eldik, M. C. M., Jutje Spelberg, H. C., Van Der Meulen, S., & Van der Meulen, B. F. (1995). Schlichting test for language production. Nijmegen: Berkhout Nihmegen BV.Google Scholar
  70. Semel, E., Wiig, E. H., & Secord, W. (1995).In T. P. Corporation (Ed.), Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Brace & Co.Google Scholar
  71. Semel, E., Wiig, E., & Secord, W. (2000). Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals (CELF-3UK) (3rd ed.). Oxford: Harcourt Assessment.Google Scholar
  72. Sparrow, S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). Vineland adaptive behavior scales. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  73. Sparrow, S. S., Ciccetti, D. V., & Balla, D. A. (2005). Vineland adaptive behaviour scales (2nd edn.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  74. Sterling, A. M., & Warren, S. F. (2008). Communication and language development in participants and toddlers with Down syndrom and fragile X syndrome. In J. Roberts, C. Chapman & S. F. Warren (Eds.), Speech and language development and intervention in Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome (pp. 53–76). Baltimore: Brookes.Google Scholar
  75. Tager-Flusberg, H., & Calkins, S. (1990). Does imitation facilitate the acquisition of grammar? Evidence from a study of autistic, Down’s syndrome and normal children. Journal of Child Language, 17, 591–606.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Tager-Flusberg, H., & Joseph, R. M. (2003). Identifying neurocognitive phenotypes in autism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 358, 303–314.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Thurman, A. J., McDuffie, A., Hagerman, R., & Abbeduto, L. (2014). Psychiatric symptoms in boys with fragile X syndrome: A comparison with nonsyndromic autism spectrum disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35, 1072–1086.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Verkerk, A., Pieretti, M., Sutcliffe, J. S., Fu, Y., Kuhl, D. P. A., Pizzuti, A., ... Warren, S. T. (1991). Identification of a Gene (FMR-1) containing a CGG repeat coincident with a breakpoint cluster region exhibiting length variation in fragile X syndrome. Cell, 65, 905–914.Google Scholar
  79. Volden, J., Smith, I. M., Szatmari, P., Bryson, S., Fombonne, E., Mirenda, P., ... Thompson, A. (2011). Using the preschool language scale, fourth edition to characterize language in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 20, 200–209.Google Scholar
  80. Wiig, E. H., Secord, W., & Semel, E. (1992). In T. P. Corporation (Ed.), Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals: Preschool. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Brace & Co.Google Scholar
  81. Williams, K. T. (2007). Expressive vocabulary test (2nd edn.). Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments.Google Scholar
  82. Woynaroski, T., Yoder, P., & Watson, L. R. (2015). Atypical cross-modal profiles and longitudinal associations between vocabulary scores in initially minimally verbal children with ASD. Autism Research, 9, 301–310.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Zimmerman, I. L., Steiner, V., & Pond, R. E. (1997). Preschool language scales (3rd UK edn). UK: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Waisman CenterUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Speech, Language, & Hearing SciencesPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations