Advertisement

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 46, Issue 8, pp 2653–2665 | Cite as

Opinions of Turkish Parents and Teachers About Safety Skills Instruction to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation

  • Nursinem Sirin
  • Elif Tekin-IftarEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Safety skills instruction should be regarded as one of the important teaching areas. A descriptive study was designed to reveal the opinions of Turkish parents and teachers of children with autism spectrum disorders regarding safety skills instruction. Data were collected through interview and analyzed descriptively. Findings showed that (a) both parents and teachers were able to define safety skills, (b) they found safety skills instruction important and necessary, (c) rather than providing systematic instruction they use natural occurrences as teaching opportunities and prevention behaviors, (d) parents have never had a conversation with teachers about safety skills instruction, and (e) neither parents nor teachers have enough knowledge and experience for teaching safety skills. Implications for implementing safety training are discussed.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorders Safety skills Opinions of parents Opinions of teachers 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by a Grant from the Anadolu University Research Fund (Project No: 1304E070). Authors would like to Miss Dulce Castillo for her insightful proofreading and Dr. Gonul Kircaali-Iftar for her comments.

Authors’ Contributions

NS conceived of the study, participated in the design, collected data and helped to draft manuscript; ETI conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination, analysis and interpretation of the data and write the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this study.

References

  1. Acar, G., Tekin-Iftar, E., & Yikmis, A. (2015). Comparison of the efficacy of parent generated and delivered social stories and video modeling in teaching prosocial skills to children with ASD. In Poster presented at The Association for the Behavior Analysis Annual Convention. San Antonio, TX.Google Scholar
  2. Agran, M., & Krump, M. (2010). A preliminary investigation of parents’ opinions about safety skills instruction: An apparent discrepancy between importance and expectation. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 45, 303–311.Google Scholar
  3. Agran, M., Krump, M., Spooner, F., & Traice-Lynn, Z. (2012). Asking students about the importance of safety skills instruction: A preliminary analysis of what they think is important. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 37, 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  5. Bergstrom, R., Najdowski, A. C., & Tarbox, J. (2012). Teaching children with autism to seek help when lost in public. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45, 191–195.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Besler, F. (2015). Anneler tarafindan sunulan video modelle ogretimin otizmli cocuklara oyun becerisi ogretmedeki etkililiği (The effectiveness of mother delivered video modeling on teaching play skills to children with autism). (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Anadolu University, Eskisehir.Google Scholar
  7. Brown-Lavoie, S. M., Viecilli, M. A., & Weiss, J. A. (2014). Sexual knowledge and victimization in adults with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 2185–2196.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Calavari, R. N. S., & Romanczyk, R. G. (2012). Caregiver perspectives on unintentional injury risk in children with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 27, 632–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clees, T. J., & Gast, D. L. (1994). Social safety skills instruction for individuals with disabilities: A sequential model. Education and Treatment of Children, 17, 163–185.Google Scholar
  10. Collins, B. C., Wolery, M., & Gast, D. L. (1991). A survey of safety concerns for students with special needs. Education and Training in Mental Retardation, 26, 305–318.Google Scholar
  11. Creswell, J. W. (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.Google Scholar
  12. Dixon, D., Bergstorm, R., Smith, M. N., & Tarbox, J. (2010). A review of research on procedures for teaching safety skills to persons with developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31, 985–994.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Dogoe, M. S., Banda, D. R., Lock, R. H., & Feinstein, R. (2011). Teaching generalized reading of product warning labels to young adults with autism using the constant time delay procedure. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 46, 204–213.Google Scholar
  14. Doyle, B.T., & Doyle-Iland, E.D. (2004). Safety considerations. http://www.asdatoz.com/Documents/Website%20Safety%20handout.pdf.
  15. Doyle, B. T., & Doyle-Iland, E. (2004b). Autism spectrum disorders from A to Z. Texas: Future Horizons.Google Scholar
  16. Hoch, H., Taylor, B. A., & Rodriguez, A. (2009). Teaching teenagers with autism to answer cell phones and seek assistance when lost. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 2, 14–20.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Howard-Barr, E. M., Rienzo, B. A., Pigg, R. M., & James, D. (2005). Teacher beliefs, professional preparation, and practices regarding exceptional students and sexuality education. Journal of School Health, 75, 99–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Istre, G. R., McCoy, M., Carlin, D. K., & McClain, J. (2002). Residential fire related deaths and injuries among children: Fire play, smoke alarms, and prevention. Injury Prevention, 8, 128–132.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Ivey, J. K. (2004). What do parents expect? A study of likelihood and importance issues for children with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 19, 27–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kenny, M. C., Bennett, K. D., Dougery, J., & Steele, F. (2013). Teaching general safety and body safety training skills to a Latino preschool male with autism. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22, 1092–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kim, Y. (2010). Personal safety programs for children with intellectual disabilities. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 45, 312–319.Google Scholar
  22. Koller, R. (2000). Sexuality and adolescents with autism. Sexuality and Disability, 18, 125–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lee, L. C., Harrington, R. A., Chang, J. J., & Connors, S. L. (2008). Increased risk of injury in children with developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 29, 247–255.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lumley, V. A., & Miltenberger, R. G. (1997). Sexual abuse prevention for persons with mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 101, 459–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. McEachern, A. G. (2012). Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities: Prevention strategies for clinical practice. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 21, 386–398.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Mechling, L. C. (2008). Thirty year review of safety skill instruction for persons with intellectual disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 43, 311–323.Google Scholar
  27. Milli Egitim Bakanligi. (2008). Talim terbiye kurulu baskanligi ozel egitim ve rehabilitasyon merkezi yaygin gelisimsel bozukluklar destek programi (Curriculum for children with pervasive developmental disorders). http://orgm.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2013_09/04010347_yaygngeliimselbozukluklardestekeitimprogram.pdf.
  28. Milli Egitim Bakanligi. (2013). Talim terbiye kurulu baskanligi ozel egitim uygulama merkezi (okulu) birinci ve ikinci kademe egitim programi (otistik cocuklar için) (Cirriculum for children with ASD). Ankara. http://ttkb.meb.gov.tr/dosyalar/programlar/ilkogretim/otistikcocuklar.pdf.
  29. Miltenberger, G. R. (2008). Teaching safety skills to children: Prevention of firearm injury as an exemplar of best practice in assessment, training, and generalization of safety skills. Association for Behavior Analysis International, 1, 30–36.Google Scholar
  30. Olcay-Gul, S., & Tekin-Iftar, E. (2016). The power of family generated and delivered social story intervention: Acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of social skills in youths with ASD. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 51, 67–78.Google Scholar
  31. Pereda, N., Guilera, G., Forns, M., & Gomez-Benito, J. (2009). The prevalence of child sexual abuse in community and student samples: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 328–338.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Phelan, K. J., Khoury, J., Kalkwarf, H. J., & Lanphear, B. P. (2001). Trends and patterns of playground injuries in United States children and adolescents. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 1, 227–233.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Runyan, C. W., Casteel, C., Perkins, D., Black, C., Marshall, S. W., Johnson, R. M., et al. (2005). Unintentional injuries in the home in the United States. Party 1: Mortality. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28, 73–79.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Scheuermann, B., & Webber, J. (2002). Autism: Teaching does make a difference. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.Google Scholar
  35. Strickland, D. C., McAllister, D., Coles, C. D., & Osborne, S. (2007). An evolution of virtual reality training designs for children with autism and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Topics in Language Disorders, 27, 226–241.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Summers, J., Tarbox, J., Findel-Pyles, R. S., Wilke, A. E., Bergstrom, R., & Williams, W. L. (2011). Teaching two household safety skills to children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 629–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Suzer, T. (2015). Otizmli bireylere cinsel istismardan korunma becerilerinin öğretiminde sosyal öykülerin etkililiği (Effectiveness of Social Stories on teaching individuals with autism to protect themselves from sexual abuse). (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Anadolu University, Eskisehir.Google Scholar
  38. Tekin-Iftar, E. (2008). Parent-delivered community-based instruction with simultaneous prompting for teaching community skills to children with developmental disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 43, 249–265.Google Scholar
  39. Tinsworth, D., & McDonald, J. (2001). Special study: Injuries and deaths associated with children’s playground equipment. Washington, DC: US Consumer Product Safety Commission. http://cpsc.gov/PageFiles/108601/playgrnd.pdf.
  40. Volkmar, F. R., & Wiesner, L. A. (2009). A practical guide to autism: What every parent, family member, and teacher needs to know? Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  41. Yildirim-Sari, H., & Girli, A. (2012). Gelişimsel yetersizliği olan çocuklarda kaza ve yaralanma (Accidents and injury in children with developmental disabilities). Journal of Anatolia Nursing and Health Sciences, 15, 283–287.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bir Inci Ozel Egitim MerkeziEskisehirTurkey
  2. 2.Research Institute for the HandicappedAnadolu UniversityEskisehirTurkey

Personalised recommendations