Advertisement

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 46, Issue 7, pp 2520–2525 | Cite as

Brief Report: Sensitivity of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders to Face Appearance in Selective Trust

  • Pengli Li
  • Chunhua Zhang
  • Li Yi
Brief Report

Abstract

The current study examined how children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) could selectively trust others based on three facial cues: the face race, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. In a computer-based hide-and-seek game, two face images, which differed significantly in one of the three facial cues, were presented as two cues for selective trust. Children had to selectively trust the own-race, attractive and trustworthy faces to get the prize. Our findings demonstrate an intact ability of selective trust based on face appearance in ASD compared to typical children: they could selectively trust the informant based on face race and attractiveness. Our results imply that despite their face recognition deficits, children with ASD are still sensitive to some aspects of face appearance.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorders Face appearance Selective trust Race Attractiveness Trustworthiness 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (31571135, 31200779). The authors are grateful to Tianbi Li, ShuYuan Feng, Xiao Yu, the staff in Qingdao Elim School, Xingfuzhijia Kindergarten, Yilei Kindergarten, and Chigangyuan Kindergarten, for their generous assistance in completing the study.

Author Contributions

LY was responsible for designing and overseeing the experiment, and writing the manuscript. PL was responsible for designing and conducting the experiment, and drafting the manuscript. CZ was involved in data collection. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

References

  1. Auyeung, B., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., & Allison, C. (2008). The autism spectrum quotient: children’s version (AQ-Child). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1230–1240. doi: 10.1007/s10803-007-0504-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bar-Haim, Y., Ziv, T., Lamy, D., & Hodes, R. M. (2006). Nature and nurture in own-race face processing. Psychological Science, 17, 159–163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bascandziev, I., & Harris, P. L. (2014). In beauty we trust: Children prefer information from more attractiveness informants. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 32(1), 94–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bzdok, D., Langner, R., Caspers, S., Kurth, F., Habel, U., Zilles, K., et al. (2011). ALE meta-analysis on facial judgments of trustworthiness and attractiveness. Brain Structure Function, 215, 209–223.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Clement, F., Koenig, M., & Harris, P. (2004). The ontogenesis of trust. Mind and Language, 19, 360–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cogsdill, E. J., Todorov, A. T., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2014). Inferring character from faces: A developmental study. Psychological Science, 25, 1132–1139. doi: 10.1177/0956797614523297.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2002). The social responsiveness scale. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  8. Corriveau, K., & Harris, P. L. (2009). Choosing your informant: Weighing familiarity and recent accuracy. Developmental Science, 12, 426–437.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ewing, L., Caulfield, F., Read, A., & Rhodes, G. (2014). Appearance-based trust behavior is reduced in children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism,. doi: 10.1177/1362361314559431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ewing, L., Caulfield, F., Read, A., & Rhodes, G. (2015). Perceived trustworthiness of faces drives trust behavior in children. Developmental Science, 18, 327–334.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Grammer, K., & Thornhill, R. (1994). Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness and sexual selection: the role of symmetry and averageness. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 108(3), 233.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Harris, P. L. (2007). Trust. Developmental Science, 10, 135–138.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Jaswal, V. K. (2004). Don’t believe everything you hear: Preschoolers’ sensitivity to speaker intent in category induction. Child Development, 75, 1871–1885.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Jaswal, V. K., & Neely, L. A. (2006). Adults don’t always know best. Psychological Science, 17, 757–758.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kinzler, K. D., Corriveau, K. H., & Harris, P. L. (2011). Children’s selective trust in native-accented speakers. Developmental Science, 14(1), 106–111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Klin, A., Jones, W., Schultz, R., Volkmar, F., & Cohen, D. (2002). Visual fixation patterns during viewing of naturalistic social situations as predictors of social competence in individuals with autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 809–816.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Koenig, M., & Harris, P. L. (2005). Preschoolers mistrust ignorant and inaccurate speakers. Child Development, 76, 1261–1277.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee, K., & Cameron, C. A. (2000). Extracting truthful information from lies: emergence of the expression-representation distinction. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 46, -1-20.Google Scholar
  19. Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H, Jr, Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 205–223. doi: 10.1023/A:1005592401947.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–685. doi: 10.1007/BF02172145.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Mascaro, O., & Sperber, D. (2009). The moral, epistemic, and mindreading components of children’s vigilance towards deception. Cognition, 112, 367–380.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Masuda, N., & Fu, F. (2015). Evolutionary models of in-group favoritism. F1000prime reports, 7.Google Scholar
  23. Oosterhof, N. N., & Todorov, A. (2008). The functional basis of face evaluation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(32), 11087–11092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pelphrey, K. A., Sasson, N. J., Reznick, J. S., Paul, G., Goldman, B. D., & Piven, J. (2002). Visual scanning of faces in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 249–261.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Perreault, A., Gurnsey, R., Dawson, M., Mottron, L., & Bertone, A. (2011). Increased sensitivity to mirror symmetry in autism. PLoS ONE, 6(4), e19519–e19519.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). The social communication questionnaire: Manual. Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  27. Schmid, K., Marx, D., & Samal, A. (2008). Computation of a face attractiveness index based on neoclassical canons, symmetry, and golden ratios. Pattern Recognition, 41(8), 2710–2717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Todorov, A., Mende-Siedlecki, P., & Dotsch, R. (2013). Social judgments from faces. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 23, 373–380. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2012.12.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Todorov, A., Pakrashi, M., & Oosterhof, N. (2009). Evaluating faces on trustworthiness after minimal time exposure. Social Cognition, 27, 813–833. doi: 10.1521/soco.2009.27.6.813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Todorov, A., Said, C. P., Engell, A. D., & Oosterhof, N. N. (2008). Understanding evaluation of faces on social dimensions. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(12), 455–460.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Uslaner, E. M. (2002). The moral foundations of trust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vanderbilt, K. E., Liu, D., & Heyman, G. D. (2011). The development of distrust. Child Development, 82, 1372–1380.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Walker, P. M., & Tanaka, J. W. (2003). An encoding advantage for own-race versus other-race faces. Perception, 32, 1117–1125.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Yi, L., Fan, Y., Li, J., Huang, D., Wang, X., Tan, W., et al. (2014). Distrust and retaliatory deception in children with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8, 1741–1755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yi, L., Pan, J., Fan, Y., Zou, X., Wang, X., & Lee, K. (2013). Children with autism spectrum disorder are more trusting than typically developing children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116, 755–761.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Yi, L., Quinn, P. C., Fan, Y., Huang, D., Feng, C., Li, J., et al. (2016). Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder scan own-race faces differently from other-race faces. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 141, 177–186. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2015.09.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Yi, L., Quinn, P. C., Feng, C., Li, J., Ding, H., & Lee, K. (2015). Do individuals with autism spectrum disorder process own- and other-race faces differently? Vision Research, 107, 124–132. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2014.11.021.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Zebrowitz, L. A., Bronstad, P. M., & Lee, H. K. (2007). The contribution of face familiarity to ingroup favoritism and stereotyping. Social Cognition, 25, 306–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zebrowitz, L. A., & Montepare, J. M. (2008). Social psychological face perception: Why appearance matters. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 1497–1517. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2008.00109.x.Social.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologySun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Qingdao Autism Research InstituteQingdaoChina
  3. 3.Department of Psychology and Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental HealthPeking UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations