Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 673–684 | Cite as

Nutritional Impact of a Gluten-Free Casein-Free Diet in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Salvador Marí-Bauset
  • Agustín Llopis-González
  • Itziar Zazpe
  • Amelia Marí-Sanchis
  • María Morales Suárez-Varela
Original Paper


We compared anthropometric values, nutrient intake, the Healthy Eating Index and food variety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 20 on a gluten-free casein-free (GFCF) diet and 85 on a regular diet in Valencia (Spain) using 3-days food diaries. Those on the GFCF diet had a lower weight, body mass index, and total energy, pantothenic acid, calcium, phosphorus and sodium intake, but a higher intake of fiber, legumes, and vegetables. Further, the GFCF diet group had a better quality of fat intake, but needed supplementation with vitamin D. Randomized controlled trials are required to explore long-term effects of this diet on anthropometric and nutritional status (the focus of our study), but also behavioral symptoms, in children with ASD.


Nutrition Growth Gluten-free Casein-free diet ASD (autism spectrum disorder) 



We wish to thank the parents who generously donated their time and effort to participate in the study. We also thank the head teachers of the schools that collaborated in the study for their interest in this research. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of editors of Ideas Need Communicating Language Services with the preparation of this manuscript.

Author contribution

All five authors have contributed significantly to the design and implementation of the study, and also to the analysis and interpretation of the results. They have all participated in preparing this manuscript and have approved the final version submitted for publication.


The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship and/or publication of this article.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no potential conflicts of interest to declare in relation to this research, or the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Supplementary material

10803_2015_2582_MOESM1_ESM.doc (100 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 99 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Salvador Marí-Bauset
    • 1
    • 2
  • Agustín Llopis-González
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Itziar Zazpe
    • 4
    • 5
  • Amelia Marí-Sanchis
    • 6
  • María Morales Suárez-Varela
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Unit of Public Health and Environmental Care, Department of Preventive MedicineUniversity of ValenciaValenciaSpain
  2. 2.Institute of Health Carlos IIICIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP)MadridSpain
  3. 3.Center for Public Health Research (CSISP-FISABIO)ValenciaSpain
  4. 4.Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences and PhysiologyUniversity of NavarraNavarraSpain
  5. 5.Biomedical Research Centre Network on Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn), Physiopathology of Obesity and NutritionInstitute of Health Carlos IIIMadridSpain
  6. 6.Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics UnitNavarra Hospital ComplexNavarraSpain

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