Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 378–393

‘What Brings Him Here Today?’: Medical Problem Presentation Involving Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

  • Olga Solomon
  • John Heritage
  • Larry Yin
  • Douglas W. Maynard
  • Margaret L. Bauman
S.I.: Discourse and conversation analytic approaches to the study of ASD

Abstract

Conversation and discourse analyses were used to examine medical problem presentation in pediatric care. Healthcare visits involving children with ASD and typically developing children were analyzed. We examined how children’s communicative and epistemic capabilities, and their opportunities to be socialized into a competent patient role are interactionally achieved. We found that medical problem presentation is designed to contain a ‘pre-visit’ account of the interactional and epistemic work that children and caregivers carry out at home to identify the child’s health problems; and that the intersubjective accessibility of children’s experiences that becomes disrupted by ASD presents a dilemma to all participants in the visit. The article examines interactional roots of unmet healthcare needs and foregone medical care of people with ASD.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorders Children Conversation analysis Discourse analysis Healthcare encounters Medical problem presentation Unmet healthcare needs 

References

  1. Accordino, R. E., & Walkup, J. T. (2015). The medical and psychiatric evaluation of the nonverbal child. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 54(1), 3–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amer, A., & Fisher, H. (2009). “Don’t call me ‘Mom’”: How parents want to be greeted by their pediatrician. Clinical Pediatrics, 48(7), 720–722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, text revision (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  5. Angell, A. M., & Solomon, O. (2014). The social life of health records: Understanding families’ experiences of autism. Social Science and Medicine, 117, 50–57.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Antaki, C., & Wilkinson, R. (2012). Conversation analysis and the study of atypical populations. In J. Sidnell & T. Stivers (Eds.), Handbook of conversation analysis (pp. 533–550). New York: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aronsson, K., & Rindstedt, C. (2011). Alignments and face-work in paediatric visits: Toward a social choreography of multiparty talk. In C. N. Candlin & S. Sarangi (Eds.), Handbook of communication in organisations and professions (pp. 121–142). Boston: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  8. Atkinson, J. M., & Heritage, J. (1984). Structures of social action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bauman, M. L. (2010). Medical comorbidities in autism: Challenges to diagnosis and treatment. The Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, 7(3), 320–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bauman, M. L., & Kemper, T. L. (2005). Structural brain anatomy in autism: What is the evidence? In M. L. Bauman & T. K. Kemper (Eds.), The neurobiology of autism (2nd ed., pp. 121–135). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Beach, W. A., & Anderson, J. K. (2003). Communication and cancer? Part I: The noticeable absence of interactional research. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 21(3), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bethell, C. D., Lindly, O., Kogan, M., & Zuckerman, K. (2014). Health care quality for children: The position of autism spectrum disorder. In V. B. Patel, V. R. Preedy, & C. R. Martin (Eds.), Comprehensive guide to autism (pp. 139–165). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cahill, P. (2010). Children’s participation in their primary care consultations. In H. Gardner & M. Forrester (Eds.), Analysing interactions in childhood: Insights from conversation analysis (pp. 128–145). West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  14. Cahill, P., & Papageorgiou, A. (2007). Triadic communication in the primary care paediatric consultation: A review of the literature. British Journal of General Practice, 57(544), 904–911.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Capps, L., & Ochs, E. (1995a). Constructing panic: The discourse of agoraphobia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Capps, L., & Ochs, E. (1995b). Out of place: Narrative insights into agoraphobia. Discourse Processes, 19(3), 407–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Charon, R. (2001). Narrative medicine: A model for empathy, reflection, profession, and trust. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(15), 1897–1902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chiri, G., & Warfield, M. E. (2012). Unmet need and problems accessing core health care services for children with autism spectrum disorder. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16, 1081–1091.Google Scholar
  19. Cicourel, A. V. (2011). Evidence and inference in macro-level and micro-level healthcare studies. In C. N. Candlin & S. Sarangi (Eds.), Handbook of communication in organisations and professions (Vol. 3, pp. 61–82). Boston: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  20. Clemente, I. (2009). Progressivity and participation: Children’s management of parental assistance in paediatric chronic pain encounters. Sociology of Health & Illness, 31, 872–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clemente, I., Lee, S., & Heritage, J. (2008). Children in chronic pain: Promoting pediatric patients’ symptom accounts in tertiary care. Social Science and Medicine, 66(6), 1418–1428.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coelho, C. A. (1999). Discourse analysis in traumatic brain injury. In S. McDonald, C. Code, & L. Togher (Eds.), Communication disorders following traumatic brain injury (pp. 55–79). Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  23. Creswell, J. W., Fetters, M. D., & Ivankova, N. V. (2007). Designing a mixed methods study in primary care. Annals of Family Medicine, 2, 7–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Croen, L. A., Najjar, D. V., Ray, G. T., Lotspeich, L., & Bernal, P. (2006). A comparison of health care utilization and costs of children with and without autism spectrum disorders in a large group-model health plan. Pediatrics, 118(4), 1203–1211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Croen, L. A., Zerbo, O., Qian, Y., Massolo, M. L., Rich, S., Sidney, S., & Kripke, C. (2015). The health status of adults on the autism spectrum. Autism. doi:10.1177/1362361315577517
  26. De Wolfe, J. (2014). Parents of children with autism: An ethnography. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dickerson, P., Stribling, P., & Rae, J. (2007). Tapping into interaction: How children with autistic spectrum disorders design and place tapping in relation to activities in progress. Gesture, 7(3), 271–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Duranti, A. (1997). Universal and culture-specific properties of greetings. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 7, 63–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Eyal, G., & Hart, B. (2010). How parents of autistic children became “experts on their own children”: Notes towards a sociology of expertise. Berkeley Journal of Sociology, 54, 3–17.Google Scholar
  30. Gabe, J., Olumide, G., & Bury, M. (2004). ‘It takes three to tango’: A framework for understanding patient partnership in paediatric clinics. Social Science and Medicine, 59(5), 1071–1079.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Goffman, E. (1955). On face work: An analysis of ritual elements of social interaction. Psychiatry, 18(3), 213–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Goldson, E., & Bauman, M. (2007). Medical health assessment and treatment issues in autism. In R. L. Gabriels & R. Hill (Eds.), Growing up with autism: Working with school-age children and adolescents (pp. 39–57). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  33. Goodwin, C. (2003). Conversational frameworks for the accomplishment of meaning in aphasia. In C. Goodwin (Ed.), Conversation and brain damage (pp. 90–116). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Halkowski, T., & Gill, V. T. (2010). Conversation analysis and ethnomethodology: The centrality of interaction. In I. L. Bourgeault, R. DeVries, & R. Dingwall (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative health research (pp. 212–228). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hamilton, H. (1994). Conversation with an Alzheimer’s patient: Interactional sociolinguistic study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Henry, C. A., Nowinski, L., Koesterer, K., Ferrone, C., Spybrook, J., & Bauman, M. (2014). Low rates of depressed mood and depression diagnoses in a clinic review of children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 24(7), 403–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Heritage, J. (1984). Garfinkel and ethnomethodology. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  38. Heritage, J. (2009a). Conversation analysis as an approach to the medical encounter. In J. B. McKinlay & L. Marceau (Eds.), e-Source: Behavioral and Social Science Research Interactive Textbook. Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research. http://www.esourceresearch.org.
  39. Heritage, J. (2009b). Negotiating the legitimacy of medical problems. In D. E. Brashers & D. L. Goldsmith (Eds.), Communicating to manage health and illness (pp. 161–178). New York: Routeledge.Google Scholar
  40. Heritage, J. (2011). Territories of knowledge, territories of experience: Empathic moments in interaction. In T. Stivers, L. Mondada, & J. Steensig (Eds.), The morality of knowledge in conversation (Vol. 29, pp. 159–183). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Heritage, J. (2012). Epistemics in conversation. In J. Sidnell & T. Stivers (Eds.), The handbook of conversation analysis (Vol. 121, pp. 370–394). Malden: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Heritage, J., & Maynard, D. (Eds.). (2006a). Communication in medical care: Interactions between primary care physicians and patients. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Heritage, J., & Maynard, D. W. (2006b). Problems and prospects in the study of physician–patient interaction: 30 years of research. Annual Review of Sociology, 32, 351–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Heritage, J., & Robinson, J. D. (2006). The structure of patients’ presenting concerns: Physicians’ opening questions. Health Communication, 19(2), 89–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Heritage, J., Robinson, J. D., Elliott, M., Beckett, M., & Wilkes, M. (2007). Reducing patients’ unmet concerns: The difference one word can make. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22, 1429–1433.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hindmarsh, J., & Pilnick, A. (2007). Knowing bodies at work: Embodiment and ephemeral teamwork in anaesthesia. Organization Studies, 28(9), 1395–1416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hindmarsh, J., Reynolds, P., & Dunne, S. (2011). Exhibiting understanding: The body in apprenticeship. Journal of Pragmatics, 43, 489–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hodgetts, S., Nicholas, D., Zwaigenbaum, L., & McConnell, D. (2013). Parents’ and professionals’ perceptions of family-centered care for children with autism spectrum disorder across service sectors. Social Science and Medicine, 96, 138–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hudak, P. L., Clark, S. J., & Raymond, G. (2011). How surgeons design treatment recommendations in orthopaedic surgery. Social Science and Medicine, 73, 1028–1036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hudak, P. L., & Maynard, D. W. (2011). An interactional approach to conceptualising small talk in medical interactions. Sociology of Health & Illness, 33(4), 634–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jefferson, G. (1984). Stepwise transition out of topic to inappropriately next positioned matters. In J. M. Atkinson & J. C. Heritage (Eds.), Structures of social action: Studies in conversation analysis (pp. 194–222). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Jefferson, G. (1989). Preliminary notes on a possible metric which provides for a ‘standard maximum’ silences of approximately one second in conversation. In D. Roger & P. Bull (Eds.), Conversation: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 166–196). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  53. Jefferson, G. (2004). Glossary of transcript symbols with an introduction. Pragmatics and Beyond New Series, 125, 13–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jones, R. H. (2015). Discourse and health communication. In D. Tannen, H. E. Hamilton, & D. Schiffrin (Eds.), Handbook of discourse analysis (2nd ed., pp. 841–857). Malden: Wiley Blackwell.Google Scholar
  55. Jones, D., Drew, P., Elsey, C., Blackburn, D., Wakefield, S., Harkness, K., & Reuber, M. (2015). Conversational assessment in memory clinic encounters: Interactional profiling for differentiating dementia from functional memory disorders. Ageing and Mental Health.Google Scholar
  56. Kitzinger, C. (2011). Working with childbirth helplines: The contributions and limitations of conversation analysis. In C. Antaki (Ed.), Applied conversation analysis: Intervention and change in institutional talk (pp. 98–118). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  57. Kogan, M. D., Strickland, B. B., Blumberg, S. J., Singh, G. K., Perrin, J. M., & van Dyck, P. C. (2008). A national profile of the health care experiences and family impact of autism spectrum disorder among children in the United States, 2005–2006. Pediatrics, 122(6), e1149–e1158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Korkiakangas, T. K., Rae, J. P., & Dickerson, P. (2012). The interactional work of repeated talk between a teacher and a child with autism. Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders, 3, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lajonchere, C., Jones, N., Coury, D. L., & Perrin, J. M. (2012). Leadership in health care, research, and quality improvement for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: Autism Treatment Network and autism intervention research network on physical health. Pediatrics, 130, S62–S68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lawlor, M. C. (2004). Mothering work: Negotiating health care, illness and disability, and development. In S. A. Esdaile & J. A. Olson (Eds.), Mothering occupations: Challenge, agency, and participation (pp. 306–323). Philadelphia: FA Davis.Google Scholar
  61. Lester, J. N., & Paulus, T. M. (2012). Performative acts of autism. Discourse & Society, 23(3), 259–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Levy, A., & Perry, A. (2011). Outcomes in adolescents and adults with autism: A review of the literature. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 1271–1282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Liptak, G. S., Stuart, T., & Auinger, P. (2006). Health care utilization and expenditures for children with autism: Data from US national samples. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(7), 871–879.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Losh, M., & Capps, L. (2003). Narrative ability in high-functioning children with autism or Asperger’s syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(3), 239–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Losh, M., & Capps, L. (2006). Understanding of emotional experience in autism: Insights from the personal accounts of high-functioning children with autism. Developmental Psychology, 42(5), 809–881.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Makoul, G., Zick, A., & Green, M. (2007). An evidence-based perspective on greetings in medical encounters. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167(11), 1172–1176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mangione-Smith, R., Elliott, M. N., Stivers, T., et al. (2006). Ruling out the need for antibiotics: Are we sending the right message? Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 160, 945–952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Marlaire, C. L., & Maynard, D. W. (1990). Standardized testing as an interactional phenomenon. Sociology of Education, 63, 83–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Maynard, D. W. (2005). Social actions, gestalt coherence, and designations of disability: Lessons from and about autism. Social Problems, 52(4), 499–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Maynard, D. W., & Heritage, J. (2005). Conversation analysis, doctor–patient interaction and medical communication. Medical Education, 39(4), 428–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Maynard, D. W., & Hudak, P. L. (2008). Small talk, high stakes: Interactional disattentiveness in the context of prosocial doctor–patient interaction. Language in Society, 37(05), 661–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Maynard, D. W., & Marlaire, C. L. (1992). Good reasons for bad testing performance: The interactional substrate of educational exams. Qualitative Sociology, 15, 177–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McCabe, R. (2009). Specifying interactional markers of schizophrenia in clinical consultations. In I. Leudar & A. Costall (Eds.), Against theory of mind (pp. 108–125). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  74. Mishler, E. (1984). The discourse of medicine: Dialectics of medical interview. New York: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  75. Mondada, L. (2011). The organization of concurrent courses of action in surgical demonstrations. In J. Streeck, C. Goodwin, & C. Lebaron (Eds.), Embodied interaction: Language and body in the material world (pp. 207–226). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Muskett, T., Perkins, M., Clegg, J., & Body, R. (2010). Inflexibility as an interactional phenomenon: Using conversation analysis to re-examine a symptom of autism. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 24, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Newacheck, P. W., & Kim, S. E. (2005). A national profile of health care utilization and expenditures for children with special health care needs. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 59(1), 10–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nicolaidis, C., Raymaker, D. M., Ashkenazy, E., McDonald, K. E., Dern, S., Baggs, A. E. V., Kapp, S. K., Weiner, M., & Boisclair, W. C. (in press). “Respect the way I need to communicate with you:” Healthcare experiences of adults on the autism spectrum. Autism. doi:10.1177/1362361315576221.
  79. Nicolaidis, C., Raymaker, D., McDonald, K., Dern, S., Boisclair, W. C., Ashkenazy, E., & Baggs, A. (2012). Comparison of healthcare experiences in autistic and non-autistic adults: A cross-sectional online survey facilitated by an academic-community partnership. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 28(6), 761–769.Google Scholar
  80. Nishizaka, A. (2013). Distribution of visual orientations in prenatal ultrasound examinations: When the healthcare provider looks at the pregnant woman’s face. Journal of Pragmatics, 51, 68–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ochs, E. (2002). Becoming a speaker of culture. In C. Kramsch (Ed.), Language acquisition and language socialization: Ecological perspectives (pp. 99–120). London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  82. Ochs, E. (2015). Corporeal reflexivity and autism. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 49(2), 275–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ochs, E., Kremer-Sadlik, T., Sirota, K. G., & Solomon, O. (2004). Autism and the social world: An anthropological perspective. Discourse Studies, 6(2), 147–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ochs, E., & Solomon, O. (2010). Autistic sociality. Ethos, 38(1), 69–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ochs, E., Solomon, O., & Sterponi, L. (2005). Limitations and transformations of habitus in child-directed communication. Discourse Studies, 7(4–5), 547–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Opel, D. J., Heritage, J., Taylor, J. A., Mangione-Smith, R., Showalter Salas, H., DeVere, V., et al. (2013). The architecture of provider-parent vaccine discussions at health supervision visits. Pediatrics, 132(6), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Parry, R., Land, V., & Seymour, J. (2014). How to communicate with patients about future illness progression and end of life: A systematic review. BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care, 4, 331–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Peräkylä, A., & Bor, R. (1990). Interactional problems of addressing ‘dreaded issues’ in HIV counselling. AIDS Care, 2(4), 325–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pilnick, A., Hindmarsh, J., & Gill, V. T. (2009). Beyond ‘doctor and patient’: Developments in the study of healthcare interactions. Sociology of Health & Illness, 31(6), 787–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Plug, L., & Reuber, M. (2009). Conversation analysis can help in the distinction of epileptic and non-epileptic seizure disorders: A case comparison. Seizure, 18, 43–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Radcliff, L. (2013). Breast cancer and autism. Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology, 4(2), 113–117.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Reiss, S., & Szyszko, J. (1983). Diagnostic overshadowing and professional experience with mentally retarded persons. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 87(4), 396–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Robinson, J. D. (1998). Getting down to business: Talk, gaze, and body orientation during openings of doctor–patient consultations. Human Communication Research, 25(1), 97–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Robinson, J. D. (2003). An interactional structure of medical activities during acute visits and its implications for patients’ participation. Health Communication, 15(1), 27–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Robinson, J. D. (2006). Soliciting patients’ presenting concerns. In J. Heritage & D. Maynard (Eds.), Communication in medical care: Interactions between primary care physicians and patients (pp. 22–47). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Robinson, J. D., & Heritage, J. (2005). The structure of patients’ presenting concerns: The relevance of current symptoms. Social Science and Medicine, 61(2), 481–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Robinson, J. D., & Heritage, J. (2006). Physicians’ opening questions and patients’ satisfaction. Patient Education and Counseling, 60(3), 279–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Robinson, J. D., & Heritage, J. (2014). Intervening with conversation analysis: The case of medicine. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 47(3), 201–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sacks, H., Schegloff, E. A., & Jefferson, G. (1974). A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation. Language, 50, 696–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schegloff, E. A. (1979). Identification and recognition in telephone conversation openings. In G. Psathas (Ed.), Everyday language: Studies in ethnomethodology (pp. 23–78). New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
  101. Schegloff, E. A. (1986). The routine as achievement. Human Studies, 9, 111–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schegloff, E. A. (2007). Sequence organization in interaction: A primer in conversation analysis (Vol. 1). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Schiffrin, D., Tannen, D., & Hamilton, H. E. (Eds.). (2001). The handbook of discourse analysis. Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  104. Schwabe, M., Howell, S. J., & Reuber, M. (2007). Differential diagnosis of seizure disorders: A conversation analytic approach. Social Science and Medicine, 65, 712–724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Searle, J. R. (1969). Speech acts: An essay in the philosophy of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Siegel, M., & Gabriels, R. L. (2014). Psychiatric hospital treatment of children with autism and serious behavioral disturbance. Special Issue: Acute Management of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 23, 125–142.Google Scholar
  107. Silverman, C. (2011). Understanding autism: Parents, doctors, and the history of a disorder. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Charman, T., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Baird, G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(8), 921–929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Smith, M. D., Graveline, P. J., & Smith, J. B. (2012). Autism and obstacles to medical diagnosis and treatment: Two case studies. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 27(3), 189–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Solomon, O. (2004). Narrative introductions: Discourse competence of children with autistic spectrum disorders. Discourse Studies, 6(2), 253–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Solomon, O. (2011). Body in autism: A view from social interaction. In P. McPherron & V. Ramanathan (Eds.), Language, body, and health (pp. 105–141). Boston: Walter de Gruyton.Google Scholar
  112. Solomon, O., Angell, A.M., Yin, L., & Lawlor, M. (in press). ‘You can turn off the light if you’d like’: Pediatric healthcare visits for children with autism spectrum disorder as an interactional achievement. Medical Anthropology Quarterly. doi:10.1111/maq.12237
  113. Solomon, O., & Lawlor, M. C. (2013). ‘And I look down and he is gone’: Narrating autism, elopement and wandering in Los Angeles. Social Science and Medicine, 94, 106–114.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sterponi, L., & Fasulo, A. (2010). How to go on: Intersubjectivity and progressivity in the communication of a child with autism. Ethos, 38, 116–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Stivers, T. (2001). Negotiating who presents the problem: Next speaker selection in pediatric encounters. Journal of Communication, 51(2), 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Stivers, T. (2007). Prescribing under pressure: Parent–physician conversations and antibiotics. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Stivers, T. (2011). Socializing children into the patient role. In A. Duranti, E. Ochs, & B. B. Schieffelin (Eds.), Handbook of language socialization (pp. 247–267). Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Stivers, T. (2012). Physician–child interaction: When children answer physicians’ questions in routine medical encounters. Patient Education and Counseling, 87, 3–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Stivers, T., & Majid, A. (2007). Questioning children: Interactional evidence of implicit bias in medical interviews. Social Psychology Quarterly, 70(4), 424–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Street, R. L., Gordon, H., & Hailet, P. (2007). Physicians’ communication and perception of patients: Is it how they look, how they talk, or is it just the doctor? Social Science and Medicine, 65, 586–598.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Stribling, P., Rae, J., & Dickerson, P. (2007). Two forms of spoken repetition in a girl with autism. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 42, 427–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Strong, P. M. (1979). The ceremonial order of the clinic: Parents, doctors, and medical bureaucracies. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  123. Swedlund, M. P., Schumacher, J. B., Young, H. N., & Cox, E. D. (2012). Effect of communication style and physician–family relationships on satisfaction with pediatric chronic disease care. Health Communication, 27(5), 498–505.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tager-Flusberg, H., & Kasari, C. (2013). Minimally verbal school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder: The neglected end of the spectrum. Autism Research, 6(6), 468–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Tannen, D., Hamilton, H. E., & Schiffrin, D. (2015). The handbook of discourse analysis (2nd ed.). Malden: Wiley Blackwell.Google Scholar
  126. Tates, K., Elbers, E., Meeuwesen, L., & Bensing, J. (2002). Doctor–parent–child relationships: A ‘pas de trois’. Patient Education and Counseling, 48(1), 5–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tates, K., & Meeuwesen, L. (2000). ‘Let Mum have her say’: Turn taking in doctor–parent–child communication. Patient Education and Counseling, 40(2), 151–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Tates, K., & Meeuwesen, L. (2001). Doctor–parent–child communication. A (re) view of the literature. Social Science and Medicine, 52(6), 839–851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Todd, A. D., & Fisher, E. (Eds.). (1993). The social organization of doctor–patient communication. Norwood: Ablex.Google Scholar
  130. Tregnago, M. K., & Cheak-Zamora, N. C. (2012). Systematic review of disparities in health care for individuals with autism spectrum disorders in the United States. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(3), 1023–1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Turowetz, J. (2015). The interactional production of a clinical fact in a case of autism. Qualitative Sociology, 38, in press.Google Scholar
  132. Volkmar, F. R., Rowberry, J., De Vinck-Baroody, O., Gupta, A. R., Leung, J., Meyers, J., et al. (2014a). Medical care in autism and related conditions. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, & K. Pelphrey (Eds.), Handbook of autism and developmental disorders (pp. 532–554). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  133. Volkmar, F., Siegel, M., Woodbury-Smith, M., King, B., McCracken, J., & State, M. (2014b). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry., 53(2), 237–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Volkmar, F. R., & Weisner, L. A. (2009). A practical guide to autism: What every parent, family member, and teacher should know. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  135. Waitzkin, H. (1993). The politics of medical encounters: How patients and doctors deal with social problems. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  136. Warfield, M. E., Crossman, M. K., Delahaye, J., Der Weerd, E., & Kuhlthau, K. A. (2015). Physician perspectives on providing primary medical care to adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 2209–2217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wilkinson, R., Gower, M., Beeke, S., & Maxim, J. (2007). Adapting to conversation as a language-impaired speaker: Changes in aphasic turn construction over time. Communication and Medicine, 4, 79–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Yin, L., McLennan, M., & Bellou, T. F. (2013). Overweight in children with intellectual disabilities: No simple matter. Infant, Child, & Adolescent Nutrition, 5(2), 92–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olga Solomon
    • 1
  • John Heritage
    • 2
  • Larry Yin
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  • Douglas W. Maynard
    • 5
  • Margaret L. Bauman
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.USC Chan Division of Occupational Science and Occupational TherapyUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Department of Pediatrics, USC Keck School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.USC University Center for Excellence in Developmental DisabilitiesChildren’s Hospital Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  5. 5.Department of SociologyUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  6. 6.Department of Anatomy and NeurobiologyBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  7. 7.Integrated Center for Child DevelopmentNewtonUSA

Personalised recommendations