Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 45, Issue 12, pp 4135–4139 | Cite as

Brief Report: Forecasting the Economic Burden of Autism in 2015 and 2025 in the United States

Brief Report

Abstract

Few US estimates of the economic burden of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are available and none provide estimates for 2015 and 2025. We forecast annual direct medical, direct non-medical, and productivity costs combined will be $268 billion (range $162–$367 billion; 0.884–2.009 % of GDP) for 2015 and $461 billion (range $276–$1011 billion; 0.982–3.600 % of GDP) for 2025. These 2015 figures are on a par with recent estimates for diabetes and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and exceed the costs of stroke and hypertension. If the prevalence of ASD continues to grow as it has in recent years, ASD costs will likely far exceed those of diabetes and ADHD by 2025.

Keywords

Costs Non-medical services Prevalence 

Supplementary material

10803_2015_2521_MOESM1_ESM.doc (150 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 151 kb)

References

  1. Amendah, D., Grosse, S. D., et al. (2011). The economic costs of autism: A review. In D. Amaral, G. Dawson, & D. Geschwind (Eds.), Autism spectrum disorders. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. American Diabetes Association. (2013). Economic costs of diabetes in the U.S. in 2012. Diabetes Care, 36(4), 1033–1046.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bodenheimer, T., & Grumback, K. (2012). Understanding health policy: A clinical approach. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  4. Buescher, A. V. S., Cidav, Z., Knapp, M., & Mandell, D. S. (2014). Costs of autism spectrum disorder in the United Kingdom and the United States of America. JAMA Pediatrics, 168(8), 721–728.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Data and Statistics. (2014). http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/data.html. Accessed November 10, 2014.
  6. Chasson, G. S., Harris, G. E., & Neely, W. J. (2007). Cost comparison of early intensive behavioral intervention and special eduction for children with autism. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16(3), 401–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Congressional Budget Office. (2014). The economic outlook. (pp. 27–48) Table 2–1, p. 30. http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/45010-breakout-Chapter2.pdf Accessed November 15, 2014
  8. Doshi, J. A., Hodgkins, P., Kahle, J., et al. (2012). Economic activity of childhood and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the United States. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(10), 990–1002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dunbar, R. G. (2013). The Family and Medical Leave Act and the labor productivity of parents. Economic Letters. 118, 334–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fombonne, E. (1999). The epidemiology of autism: A review. Psychological Medicine, 29(4), 769–786.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ganz, M. (2006). The costs of autism. In S. Moldin & J. Rubenstein (Eds.), Understanding autism: From basic neuroscience to treatment. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  12. Go, A. S., Mozaffarian, D., Roger, V. L., et al. (2014). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2014 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 128, 1–267.Google Scholar
  13. Knapp, M., & Buescher, A. (2014). Economic aspects of autism. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, S. J. Rogers, & K. A. Pelphrey (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (4th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 1089–1106).Google Scholar
  14. Knapp, M., Romeo, R., & Beecham, J. (2009). Economic cost of autism in the UK. Autism, 13, 317–336.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Mavranezouli, I., Megnin-Viggars, O., Cheema, N., Howlin, P., Baron-Cohen, S., & Pilling, S. (2014). The cost-effectiveness of support employment for adults with autism in the United Kingdom. Autism, 18(8), 975–984.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. McMahon, J., Cullinan, V. (2014). Education programmes for young children with autism spectrum disorder: An evaluation framework. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(12), 3689–3697.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Motiwala, S. S., Gupta, S., Lilly, M. B., Ungar, W. J., & Coyte, P. C. (2006). The cost-effectiveness of expanding intensive behavioural intervention to all autistic children in Ontario. Healthcare Policy, 1(2), 135–151.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Office of the Actuary in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2014). NHE Projections 2013–2023—Tables, Table 1. http://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/NationalHealthAccountsProjected.html. Accessed December 1, 2014
  19. Penner, M., Rayar, M., Bashir, N., et al. (2015). Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing pre-diagnosis autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-targeted intervention with Ontario’s autism intervention program. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,. doi:10.1007/s10803-015-2447-0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Sisko, A. M., Keehan, S. P., Cuckler, G. A., Madison, A. J., Smith, S. D., Wolfe, C. J., et al. (2014). National health expenditure projections, 2013–23: Faster growth expected with expanded coverage and improving economy. Health Affairs, 33(10), 1841–1850.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. US Census Projections. (2014). http://www.census.gov/population/projections/Accessed November 24, 2014.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Healthcare Policy and Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, MS1CUniversity of California, Davis, School of MedicineDavisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Economics, Strome College of BusinessOld Dominion UniversityNorfolkUSA

Personalised recommendations