Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 45, Issue 11, pp 3537–3549 | Cite as

Female Autism Phenotypes Investigated at Different Levels of Language and Developmental Abilities

  • Yamini J. Howe
  • Julia A. O’Rourke
  • Yvette Yatchmink
  • Emma W. Viscidi
  • Richard N. Jones
  • Eric M. Morrow
Original Paper

Abstract

This study investigated the differences in clinical symptoms between females and males with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across three verbal ability groups (nonverbal, phrase and fluent speech), based on which Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule module was administered to 5723 individuals in four research datasets. In the Simons Simplex Collection and Autism Treatment Network, females with ASD and phrase or fluent speech had lower cognitive, adaptive, and social abilities than males. In the Autism Genetics Resource Exchange and the Autism Consortium, females with phrase or fluent speech had similar or better adaptive and social abilities than males. Females who were nonverbal had similar cognitive, adaptive, and social abilities as males. Population-based longitudinal studies of verbally fluent females with ASD are needed.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorder Sex differences Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yamini J. Howe
    • 1
    • 8
  • Julia A. O’Rourke
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yvette Yatchmink
    • 1
  • Emma W. Viscidi
    • 4
    • 9
  • Richard N. Jones
    • 5
  • Eric M. Morrow
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Division of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Hasbro Children’s/Rhode Island HospitalBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  2. 2.Lurie Center for AutismMassachusetts General Hospital for ChildrenLexingtonUSA
  3. 3.Laboratory of Computer ScienceMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  4. 4.Division of Biology and Medicine, Department of Community Health/EpidemiologyBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  5. 5.Department of Psychiatry and Human BehaviorBrown University Medical SchoolProvidenceUSA
  6. 6.Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry and Institute for Brain ScienceBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  7. 7.Developmental Disorders Genetics Research ProgramEmma Pendleton Bradley HospitalProvidenceUSA
  8. 8.Lurie Center for AutismMassachusetts General Hospital for ChildrenLexingtonUSA
  9. 9.BiogenCambridgeUSA

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