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Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 45, Issue 10, pp 3183–3194 | Cite as

Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms Among Children Enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED)

  • Lisa D. Wiggins
  • Susan E. Levy
  • Julie Daniels
  • Laura Schieve
  • Lisa A. Croen
  • Carolyn DiGuiseppi
  • Lisa Blaskey
  • Ellen Giarelli
  • Li-Ching Lee
  • Jennifer Pinto-Martin
  • Ann Reynolds
  • Catherine Rice
  • Cordelia Robinson Rosenberg
  • Patrick Thompson
  • Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp
  • Lisa Young
  • Diana Schendel
Original Paper

Abstract

This study examined the phenotypic profiles of children aged 30–68 months in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED). Children classified as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay (DD) with ASD symptoms, DD without ASD symptoms, and population comparison (POP) differed significantly from each other on cognitive, adaptive, behavioral, and social functioning and the presence of parent-reported conditions. Children with ASD and DD with ASD symptoms had mild to severe ASD risk on several measures compared to children with other DD and POP who had little ASD risk across measures. We conclude that children in SEED have varying degrees of ASD impairment and associated deficits. SEED thus provides a valuable sample to explore ASD phenotypes and inform risk factor analyses.

Keywords

Autism Etiology Symptoms Phenotype Study to Explore Early Development 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Aimee Alexander for her assistance with data cleaning and the SEED principal investigators, co-principal investigators, project coordinators, project staff, and children and families who participated in this research. This publication was supported by six cooperative agreements from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Cooperative Agreement Number U10DD000180, Colorado Department of Public Health; Cooperative Agreement Number U10DD000181, Kaiser Foundation Research Institute (CA); Cooperative Agreement Number U10DD000182, University of Pennsylvania; Cooperative Agreement Number U10DD000183, Johns Hopkins University; Cooperative Agreement Number U10DD000184, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; and Cooperative Agreement Number U10DD000498, Michigan State University. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa D. Wiggins
    • 1
  • Susan E. Levy
    • 2
    • 10
  • Julie Daniels
    • 3
  • Laura Schieve
    • 1
  • Lisa A. Croen
    • 4
  • Carolyn DiGuiseppi
    • 5
  • Lisa Blaskey
    • 2
  • Ellen Giarelli
    • 2
    • 11
  • Li-Ching Lee
    • 7
  • Jennifer Pinto-Martin
    • 8
  • Ann Reynolds
    • 6
  • Catherine Rice
    • 1
    • 12
  • Cordelia Robinson Rosenberg
    • 6
  • Patrick Thompson
    • 9
  • Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp
    • 1
  • Lisa Young
    • 8
  • Diana Schendel
    • 1
    • 13
    • 14
    • 15
  1. 1.National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental DisabilitiesCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Center for Autism ResearchChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of EpidemiologyUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  4. 4.Autism Research Program, Division of ResearchKaiser Permanente Northern CaliforniaOaklandUSA
  5. 5.Colorado School of Public HealthUniversity of Colorado-Anschutz Medical CampusAuroraUSA
  6. 6.JFK PartnersUniversity of Colorado-Anschutz Medical CampusAuroraUSA
  7. 7.Department of EpidemiologyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  8. 8.School of NursingUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  9. 9.Clinical and Translational Sciences InstituteMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  10. 10.Perelman School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  11. 11.School of Nursing and Health ProfessionsDrexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  12. 12.Emory Autism Research CenterEmory UniversityDruid HillsUSA
  13. 13.Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public HealthAarhus UniversityÅarhusDenmark
  14. 14.Department of Economics and Business, National Centre for Register-Based ResearchAarhus UniversityÅarhusDenmark
  15. 15.Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCHCopenhagenDenmark

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