Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 45, Issue 9, pp 2889–2898 | Cite as

Pivotal Response Treatment Parent Training for Autism: Findings from a 3-Month Follow-Up Evaluation

  • Grace W. Gengoux
  • Kari L. Berquist
  • Emma Salzman
  • Salena Schapp
  • Jennifer M. Phillips
  • Thomas W. Frazier
  • Mendy B. Minjarez
  • Antonio Y. Hardan
Original Paper


This study’s objective was to assess maintenance of treatment effects 3 months after completion of a 12-week Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) parent education group. Families who completed the active treatment (N = 23) were followed for an additional 12 weeks to measure changes in language and cognitive skills. Results indicated a significant improvement in frequency of functional utterances, with maintenance at 3-month follow-up [F(2, 21): 5.9, p = .009]. Children also made significant gains on the Vineland Communication Domain Standard Score [F(2, 12):11.74, p = .001] and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning Composite score [F(1, 20) = 5.43, p = .03]. These results suggest that a brief PRT parent group intervention can lead to improvements in language and cognitive functioning that are maintained 12 weeks post treatment.


Language deficits Group parent training Social communication Cognitive development Naturalistic developmental behavioral intervention 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Grace W. Gengoux
    • 1
  • Kari L. Berquist
    • 1
  • Emma Salzman
    • 2
  • Salena Schapp
    • 2
  • Jennifer M. Phillips
    • 1
  • Thomas W. Frazier
    • 3
  • Mendy B. Minjarez
    • 4
  • Antonio Y. Hardan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.PGSP-Stanford Psy.D. ConsortiumPalo Alto UniversityPalo AltoUSA
  3. 3.Center for AutismCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  4. 4.Seattle Children’s Hospital/Seattle Children’s Research InstituteSeattleUSA

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