Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 45, Issue 11, pp 3756–3763 | Cite as

Visualizing Syllables: Real-Time Computerized Feedback Within a Speech–Language Intervention

  • Laura DeThorne
  • Mariana Aparicio Betancourt
  • Karrie Karahalios
  • Jim Halle
  • Ellen Bogue
Original Paper

Abstract

Computerized technologies now offer unprecedented opportunities to provide real-time visual feedback to facilitate children’s speech–language development. We employed a mixed-method design to examine the effectiveness of two speech–language interventions aimed at facilitating children’s multisyllabic productions: one incorporated a novel computerized feedback system, VocSyl, while the other used a traditional noncomputerized pacing board. Eighteen children with a variety of diagnoses, all of whom were at the single word stage of development, enrolled in either one of the two explicit speech–language interventions (VocSyl or Pacing Board) or an active control group. Convergent findings between and within groups supported the effectiveness of the VocSyl condition. For the children with a clinical diagnosis of autism in particular, visual inspection of individual data on treatment versus control targets indicated positive treatment effects for both of the two children enrolled in the VocSyl condition and one of the two children enrolled in the Pacing Board condition. Although the study does not permit definitive conclusions about the effectiveness of any particular treatment tool or strategy in isolation, it offers preliminary support for the integration of real-time computerized feedback within speech–language intervention.

Keywords

Autism Computerized feedback Speech Treatment Intervention Developmental disorders Language 

Supplementary material

10803_2014_2274_MOESM1_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (docx 23 kb)

References

  1. American Speech–Language–Hearing Association. (2005). Evidence-based practice in communication disorders [Position Statement]. Retrieved January 23, 2014 from www.asha.org/policy
  2. Bernard-Opitz, V., Sriram, N., & Sapuan, S. (1999). Enhancing vocal imitations in children with autism using the IBM speech viewer. Autism, 3(2), 131–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Charman, T., Taylor, E., Drew, A., Cockerill, H., Brown, J. A., & Baird, G. (2005). Outcome at 7 years of children diagnosed with autism at age 2: Predictive validity of assessments conducted at 2 and 3 years of age and pattern of symptom change over time. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(5), 500–513.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.) (pp. 273–406). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  5. Fenson, L., Dale, P. S., Reznick, J. S., Bates, E., Thal, D., & Pethick, S. J. (1994). Variability in early communicative development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(5), 1–173.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Fenson, L., Marchman, V. A., Thal, D. J., Dale, P. S., Reznick, J. S., & Bates, E. (2007). MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  7. Fenson, L., Pethick, S. J., Renda, C., Cox, J. L., Dale, P. S., & Reznick, J. S. (2000). Short-form versions of the McArthur Communicative Development Inventories. Applied Psycholinguistics, 21, 95–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Girolametto, L., Pearce, P. S., & Weitzman, E. (1996a). Interactive focused stimulation for toddlers with expressive vocabulary delays. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 39, 1274–1283.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Girolametto, L., Pearce, P. S., & Weitzman, E. (1996b). The effects of focused stimulation for promoting vocabulary in young children with delays: A pilot study. Journal of Children’s Communication Development, 17, 39–49.Google Scholar
  10. Hailpern, J., Harris, A., La Botz, R., Birman, B., & Karahalios, K. (2012). Designing visualizations to facilitate multisyllabic speech with children with autism and speech delays. In Proceedings of the ACM designing interactive systems (DIS) conference. Newcastle, UK.Google Scholar
  11. Hailpern, J., Karahalios, K., & Halle, J. (2009, April). Creating a spoken impact: Encouraging vocalization through audio visual feedback in children with ASD. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 453–462). ACM.Google Scholar
  12. Hayden, D., & Square, P. (1999). Verbal motor production assessment for children. San Antonio: PsychCorp.Google Scholar
  13. Highman, C., Hennessey, N., Sherwood, M., & Leitao, S. (2008). Retrospective parent report of early vocal behaviours in children with suspected childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 24(3), 285–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jakielski, K. J., Maytasse, R., & Doyle, E. (2006). Acquisition of phonetic complexity in children 12–36 months of age. Poster session at The annual convention of the American SpeechLanguageHearing Association, Miami, November 2006.Google Scholar
  15. Kana, R. K., Keller, T. A., Cherkassky, V. L., Minshew, N. J., & Just, M. A. (2006). Sentence comprehension in autism: Thinking in pictures with decreased functional connectivity. Brain, 129(9), 2484–2493.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kasari, C., Brady, N., Lord, C., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2013). Assessing the minimally verbal school-aged child with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Research, 6(6), 479–493.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kumin, L., Councill, C., & Goodman, M. (1995). The pacing board: A technique to assist the transition from single word to multiword utterances. Infant-Toddler Intervention: The Transdisciplinary Journal, 5(1), 23–30.Google Scholar
  18. Lohrens, J. M. (2009). Facilitating multisyllabic productions with a hybrid treatment approach in three preschool-age children. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.Google Scholar
  19. Mawhood, L., Howlin, P., & Rutter, M. (2000). Autism and developmental receptive language disorder—A comparative follow‐up in early adult life. I: Cognitive and language outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41(5), 547–559.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Morris, S. R. (2009). Test-retest reliability of independent measures of phonology in the assessment of toddlers’ speech. Language Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 49, 46–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. National Autism Center. (2009). National standards project: Findings and conclusions. Retrieved September 8, 2013 from http://www.nationalautismcenter.org/nsp/reports.php
  22. Paul, R., Campbell, D., & Gilbert, K. (2013). Comparing spoken language treatments for minimally verbal preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 418–431.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Pine, J. M., & Lieven, E. V. M. (1993). Reanalysing rote-learned phrases: Individual differences in the transition to multi-word speech. Journal of Child Language, 20, 551–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Rispoli, M., Hadley, P., & Holt, J. (2009). The growth of tense productivity. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 52, 930–944.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Robertson, S. B., & Weismer, S. E. (1999). Effects of treatment on linguistic and social skills in toddlers with delayed language development. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 42, 1234–1248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Romski, M. A., & Sevcik, R. A. (2003). Augmented input: Enhancing communication development. In J. Light, D. Beukelman, & J. Reichle (Eds.), Communicative competence for individuals who use AAC (pp. 147–162). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  27. Squires, J., & Bricker, D. (2009). Ages and stages questionnaires: A parent-completed child monitoring system (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  28. Strand, E. A., & Debertine, P. (2000). The efficacy of integral stimulation intervention with developmental apraxia of speech. Journal of Medical Speech–Language Pathology, 8, 295–300.Google Scholar
  29. Strand, E. A., Stoeckel, R., & Baas, B. (2006). Treatment of severe childhood apraxia of speech: A treatment efficacy study. Journal of Medical Speech–Language Pathology, 14, 297–307.Google Scholar
  30. Tager-Flusberg, H., Rogers, S., Cooper, J., Landa, R., Lord, C., Paul, R., et al. (2009). Defining spoken language benchmarks and selecting measures of expressive language development for young children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 52, 643–652.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Turner, L. M., Stone, W. L., Pozdol, S. L., & Coonrod, E. E. (2006). Follow-up of children with autism spectrum disorders from age 2 to age 9. Autism, 10(3), 243–265.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Velleman, S. L. (1994). The interaction of phonetics and phonology in developmental verbal dyspraxia: Two case studies. Clinics in Communication Disorders, 4, 66–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Velleman, S. L. (2002). Phonotactic therapy. Seminars in Speech and Language, 23, 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wan, C. Y., Bazen, L., Baars, R., Libenson, A., Zipse, L., Zuk, J., et al. (2011). Auditory-motor mapping training as an intervention to facilitate speech output in non-verbal children with autism: A proof of concept study. PLoS ONE, 6(9), e25505.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Wolfberg, P., McCracken, H., & Tuchel, T. (2008). Fostering peer play and friendships: Creating a culture of inclusion. In K. D. Buron & P. Wolfberg (Eds.), Learners on the autism spectrum: Preparing highly qualified educators (pp. 182–207). Shawnee Mission, KS: Autism Asperger Publishing.Google Scholar
  36. Woods, J. J., & Wetherby, A. M. (2003). Early identification of and treatment for infants and toddlers who are at risk for autism spectrum disorders. Language Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 34, 180–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura DeThorne
    • 1
  • Mariana Aparicio Betancourt
    • 2
  • Karrie Karahalios
    • 3
  • Jim Halle
    • 4
  • Ellen Bogue
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Speech and Hearing ScienceUniversity of IllinoisChampaignUSA
  2. 2.Neuroscience ProgramUniversity of IllinoisChampaignUSA
  3. 3.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Special EducationUniversity of IllinoisChampaignUSA

Personalised recommendations