Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 932–942 | Cite as

Risk of Autism Associated With General Anesthesia During Cesarean Delivery: A Population-Based Birth-Cohort Analysis

  • Li-Nien Chien
  • Hsiu-Chen Lin
  • Yu-Hsuan Joni Shao
  • Shu-Ti Chiou
  • Hung-Yi ChiouEmail author
Original Paper


The rates of Cesarean delivery (C-section) have risen to >30 % in numerous countries. Increased risk of autism has been shown in neonates delivered by C-section. This study examined the incidence of autism in neonates delivered vaginally, by C-section with regional anesthesia (RA), and by C-section with general anesthesia (GA) to evaluate the risk of autism associated with C-section and obstetric anesthesia. During a mean follow-up of 4.3 years, the incidence of autism was higher in neonates delivered by C-section with GA than in neonates delivered vaginally, with an adjusted risk of 1.52 (95 % confidence interval 1.18–1.94). However, the adjusted risk of autism in neonates delivered by C-section with RA and in neonates delivered vaginally was nonsignificantly different.


Autism Cesarean delivery Obstetric anesthesia Population-based birth cohort 



This work was supported by the Health Promotion Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taiwan (grant number 9910220P).

Supplementary material

10803_2014_2247_MOESM1_ESM.doc (202 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 202 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Li-Nien Chien
    • 1
  • Hsiu-Chen Lin
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yu-Hsuan Joni Shao
    • 4
  • Shu-Ti Chiou
    • 5
    • 6
  • Hung-Yi Chiou
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Health Care Administration, College of Public Health and NutritionTaipei Medical UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, College of MedicineTaipei Medical UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Laboratory MedicineTaipei Medical University HospitalTaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.Graduate Institute of Biomedical InformaticsTaipei Medical UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  5. 5.Health Promotion Administration, Ministry of Health and WelfareTaipeiTaiwan
  6. 6.Institution of Public Health, School of MedicineNational Yang-Ming UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  7. 7.School of Public Health, College of Public Health and NutritionTaipei Medical UniversityTaipei CityTaiwan

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