A Longitudinal Examination of the Relation Between Parental Expressed Emotion and Externalizing Behaviors in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder
- 883 Downloads
The current study explored the longitudinal relation between parental expressed emotion, a well-established predictor of symptom relapse in various other disorders (e.g., schizophrenia) with externalizing behaviors in 84 children, ages 8–18 (at Time 2), with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It was found that parental expressed emotion, specifically criticism/hostility at Time 1, significantly related to a change in externalizing behaviors from Time 1 to Time 2, even after controlling for Time 1 family income, ASD symptom severity, parental distress, and parenting practices. That is, higher levels of parental criticism/hostility at Time 1 predicted higher levels of child externalizing behaviors at Time 2. However, the reverse was not found. This finding of a unidirectional relation has important clinical implications.
KeywordsAutism spectrum disorder Expressed emotion Criticism Hostility Emotional overinvolvement Externalizing behaviors Parenting
- Abidin, R. (1995). Parenting stress index, third edition; professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
- Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
- Bader, S. H. Barry, T. D., & Hann, J. H. (2014). The relation between parental expressed emotion and externalizing behaviors in children and adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. doi: 10.1177/1088357614523065.
- Frick, P. J. (1991). The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire. Unpublished instrument. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama.Google Scholar
- Luteijn, E. F., Luteijn, F., Jackson, A. E., Volkmar, F. R., & Minderaa, R. B. (2000). The Children’s Social Behavior Questionnaire for milder variants of PDD problems: Evaluation of the psychometric characteristics. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 317–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pharoah, F. M., Mari, J. J., & Streiner, D. L. (1999). Family intervention for people with schizophrenia (Cochrane review). The Cochrane library, 4.Oxford, UK: Update Software.Google Scholar
- Shaffer, A., Lindheim, O., Kolko, D. J., & Trentacosta, C. J. (2013). Bidirectional relations between parenting practices and child externalizing behavior: A cross-lagged panel analysis in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 199–210.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Totsika, V., Hastings, R. P., Emerson, E., Lancaster, G. A., & Berridge, D. M. (2011). A population-based investigation of behavioural and emotional problems and maternal health. Associations with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 91–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar