Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 44, Issue 11, pp 2769–2777 | Cite as

A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison Between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Structured Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention for Children with Autism

  • Fereshteh Mohammadzaheri
  • Lynn Kern Koegel
  • Mohammad Rezaee
  • Seyed Majid Rafiee
Original Paper

Abstract

Accumulating studies are documenting specific motivational variables that, when combined into a naturalistic teaching paradigm, can positively influence the effectiveness of interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to compare two applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention procedures, a naturalistic approach, pivotal response treatment (PRT) with a structured ABA approach in a school setting. A randomized clinical trial design using two groups of children, matched according to age, sex and mean length of utterance was used to compare the interventions. The data showed that the PRT approach was significantly more effective in improving targeted and untargeted areas after 3 months of intervention. The results are discussed in terms of variables that produce more rapid improvements in communication for children with ASD.

Keywords

Pragmatic skills Naturalistic approach Analog approach Autism Pivotal response treatment ABA 

References

  1. American Psychological Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  2. Bishop, D. V. M. (2006). Children’s communication checklist (2nd ed., U.S. ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  3. Blumburg, S. J., Bramlett, M. D., Kogan, M. D., Schieve, L. A., Jones, J. R., & Lu, M. C. (2013). Changes in prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder in school-aged U.S. children: 2007-2011-1012. National Health Statistics Reports. 65, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr065.pdf.
  4. Boettcher, M. A. (2004). Teaching social conversation skills to children with autism through self-management: An analysis of treatment gains and meaningful outcomes.Google Scholar
  5. Bryson, S. E., Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Openden, D., Smith, I. M., & Nefdt, N. (2007). Large scale dissemination and community implementation of Pivotal Response Treatment: Program description and preliminary data. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 32(2), 142–153.Google Scholar
  6. Carr, E. G., & Durand, V. M. (1985). Reducing behavior problems through functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18(2), 111–126.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Catts, H. W. (1996). The relationship between speech-language impairments and reading disabilities. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1993(36), 948–958.Google Scholar
  8. Dawson, G., Rogers, S., Munson, J., Smith, M., Winter, J., Greenson, J., et al. (2010). Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: The early start Denver model. Pediatrics, 125(1), e17–e23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. DeMyer, M., Hingtgen, J., & Jackson, R. (1981). Infantile autism reviewed: A decade of research. Schizophrenia Review, 7(3), 388–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Donno, R., Parker, G., Gilmour, J., & Skuse, D. H. (2010). Social communication deficits in disruptive primary-school children. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 196(4), 282–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dunlap, G. (1984). The influence of task variation and maintenance tasks on the learning and affect of autistic children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 37(1), 41–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Greenspan, S. I., & Wieder, S. (1999). A functional developmental approach to autism spectrum disorders. The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 24(3), 147–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Greenspan, S. I., Wieder, S., & Simons, R. (1998). The child with special needs: Encouraging intellectual and emotional growth. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley Longman 1998.Google Scholar
  14. Hancock, T. B., & Kaiser, A. P. (2002). The effects of trainer-implemented enhanced milieu teaching on the social communication of children with autism. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 22(1), 39–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Handleman, J. S., & Harris, S. L. (Eds.). (2001). Preschool education programs for children with autism. Austin, TX: Pro-ed.Google Scholar
  16. Ingersoll, B., & Schreibman, L. (2006). Teaching reciprocal imitation skills to young children with autism using a naturalistic behavioral approach: Effects on language, pretend play, and joint attention. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(4), 487–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Koegel, L. K. (2011). Pivotal response treatment: Using motivation as a pivotal response. Santa Barbara: University of California.Google Scholar
  18. Koegel, R. L., Bimbela, A., & Schreibman, L. (1996a). Collateral effects of parent training on family interactions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 26(3), 347–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Koegel, R. L., Camarata, S., Koegel, L. K., Ben-Tall, A., & Smith, A. E. (1998). Increasing speech intelligibility in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28(3), 241–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Koegel, K., Green-Hopkins, I., & Barnes, C. C. (2010a). Brief report: Question-asking and collateral language acquisition in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 509–515.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Koegel, R. L., & Koegel, L. K. (2006). Pivotal response treatments. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  22. Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Ashbaugh, K., & Bradshaw, J. (2014). The importance of early identification and intervention for children with or at risk for autism spectrum disorders. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 0, 1–7.Google Scholar
  23. Koegel, L. K., Koegel, J. K., Harrower, J. K., & Carter, C. M. (1996b). Pivotal response intervention I: Overview of approach. The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 24(3), 174–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Koegel, L. K., Koegel, J. K., Harrower, J. K., & Carter, C. M. (1999a). Pivotal response intervention I: Overview of approach. The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 24(3), 174–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Shoshan, Y., & McNerney, E. (1999b). Pivotal response intervention II: Preliminary long-term outcome data. The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 24(3), 186–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Koegel, R. L., Koegel, L. K., & Surratt, A. V. (1992). Language intervention and disruptive behavior in preschool children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 22(2), 141–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Koegel, R. L., O’Dell, M., & Dunlap, G. (1988). Producing speech use in nonverbal autistic children by reinforcing attempts. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18(4), 525–538.Google Scholar
  28. Koegel, R. L., O’Dell, M. C., & Koegel, L. K. (1987). A natural language teaching paradigm for nonverbal autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17(2), 187–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Koegel, L. K., Singh, A. K., & Koegel, R. L. (2010b). Improving motivation for academics in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(9), 1057–1066.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Koegel, R. L., & Williams, J. A. (1980). Direct versus indirect response-reinforcer relationships in teaching autistic children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 8(4), 537–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Landa, R. (2007). Early communication development and intervention for children with autism. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 13(1), 16–25. doi:10.1002/mrdd.20134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Leaf, R. B. (1999). A work in progress: Behavior management strategies and a curriculum for intensive behavioral treatment of autism (pp. 1417–1418). J. McEachin (Ed.). New York: Drl Books.Google Scholar
  33. Locke, J., Ishijima, E. H., Kasari, C., & London, N. (2010). Loneliness, friendship quality and the social networks of adolescents with high-functioning autism in an inclusive school setting. Journal of Research in Special Education Needs, 10(3), 74–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lovaas, O. I. (1981). The me book. Austin, Texas: Pro-Ed, Inc.Google Scholar
  35. Lovaas, O. I. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(1), 3–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mahoney, G., & Perales, F. (2003). Relationship-focused intervention to enhance the social-emotional functioning of young children with autism spectrum disorders. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 23(2), 74–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Matson, J. L., Benavidez, D. A., Compton, L. S., Paclawskyj, T., & Baglio, C. S. (1996). Behavioral treatment of autistic persons: A review of research from 1980 to the present. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 17, 433–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Miller, J. F. (1981). Assessing language production in children: Experimental procedures. Boston, NY: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  39. National Autism Center. (2009). National standards project: Addressing the need for evidence-based practice guidelines for autism spectrum disorder. Findings and conclusions. http://www.nationalautismcenter.org/pdf/NAC%20Findings%20&%20Conclusions.pdf.
  40. National Research Council. (2001). Educating children with autism. Washington, D.C.: The National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  41. Nelson, K. E., Camarata, S. M., Welsh, J., Butkovsky, L., & Camarata, M. (1996). Effects of imitative and conversational recasting treatment on the acquisition of grammar in children with specific language impairment and younger language-normal children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 39(4), 850–859.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Prizant, B. M., Wetherby, A. M., Rubin, E., & Laurent, A. C. (2003). The SCERTS model: A transactional, family-centered approach to enhancing communication and socioemotional abilities of children with autism spectrum disorder. Infants and Young Children, 16(4), 296–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Salt, J., Shemilt, J., Sellars, V., Boyd, S., Coulson, T., & McCool, S. (2002). The Scottish centre for autism preschool treatment programme: II. The results of a controlled treatment outcome study. Autism, 6(1), 33–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Short, A., & Schopler, E. (1988). Factors relating to age of onset in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18, 207–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Simpson, R. L. (2005). Evidence-based practices and students with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20(3), 140–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ungerer, J. A., & Sigman, M. (1984). The relation of play and sensorimotor behavior to language in the second year. Child Development, 55, 1448–1455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Volkmar, F. R., Lord, C., Bailey, A., Schultz, R. T., & Klin, A. (2004). Autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(1), 135–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Williams, J. A., Koegel, R. L., & Egel, A. L. (1981). Response-reinforcer relationships and improved learning in autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14(1), 53–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Yoder, P. J., Kaiser, A. P., Alpert, C., & Fischer, R. (1993). Following the child’s lead when teaching nouns to preschoolers with mental retardation. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36, 158–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fereshteh Mohammadzaheri
    • 1
  • Lynn Kern Koegel
    • 2
  • Mohammad Rezaee
    • 1
  • Seyed Majid Rafiee
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and Health ServicesHamadanIran
  2. 2.CCS Psychology Department, Koegel Autism CenterUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  3. 3.Institute for Cognitive Science StudiesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations