Virtual Reality Job Interview Training in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder
- 3k Downloads
The feasibility and efficacy of virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT) was assessed in a single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Adults with autism spectrum disorder were randomized to VR-JIT (n = 16) or treatment-as-usual (TAU) (n = 10) groups. VR-JIT consisted of simulated job interviews with a virtual character and didactic training. Participants attended 90 % of laboratory-based training sessions, found VR-JIT easy to use and enjoyable, and they felt prepared for future interviews. VR-JIT participants had greater improvement during live standardized job interview role-play performances than TAU participants (p = 0.046). A similar pattern was observed for self-reported self-confidence at a trend level (p = 0.060). VR-JIT simulation performance scores increased over time (R 2 = 0.83). Results indicate preliminary support for the feasibility and efficacy of VR-JIT, which can be administered using computer software or via the internet.
KeywordsAutism spectrum disorder Internet-based intervention Job interview skills Vocational training
Support for this work was provided by a grant to Dr. Dale Olsen (R44 MH080496) from the National Institute of Mental Health with a subcontract to Dr. Michael Fleming at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. We would like to thank Dr. Zoran Martinovich for his consultation on the statistical analyses. The authors acknowledge research staff at Northwestern University’s Clinical Research Program for data collection and our participants for volunteering their time.
Conflict of interest
Drs. Smith, Lounds Taylor, and Fleming as well as Ms. Ginger, Ms. Wright, and Mr. Wright have no conflicts of interest to declare in relation to the subject of this study. Dr. Olsen and Ms Boteler Humm have owners equity in SIMmersion and Dr. Bell was a paid consultant by SIMmersion during the development of the intervention.
- Aldridge, F. J., Gibbs, V. M., Schmidhofer, K., & Williams, M. (2012). Investigating the clinical usefulness of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a tertiary level, autism spectrum disorder specific assessment clinic. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 294–300. doi: 10.1007/s10803-011-1242-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
- Bell, M. D., & Weinstein, A. (2011). Simulated job interview skill training for people with psychiatric disability: Feasibility and tolerability of virtual reality training. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37, S91–S97.Google Scholar
- Cohen, D. S., Colliver, J. A., Marcy, M. S., Fried, E. D., & Swartz, M. H. (1996). Psychometric properties of a standardized-patient checklist and rating-scale form used to assess interpersonal and communication skills. Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 71, S87–S89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2012). Social responsiveness scale, second edition (SRS-2) (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Fleming, M. F., Olsen, D. E., Stathes, H., Boteler, L., Grossberg, P., Pfeifer, J., et al. (2009). Virtual reality skills training for health care professionals in alcohol screening and brief intervention. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM, 22, 387–398. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2009.04.080208.
- Harris, P. A., Taylor, R., Thielke, R., Payne, J., Gonzalez, N., & Conde, J. G. (2009). Research electronic data capture (REDCap)—A metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 42, 377–381.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hendricks, D. (2010). Employment and adults with autism spectrum disorders: Challenges and strategies for success. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 32, 125–134.Google Scholar
- Kandalaft, M. R., Didehbani, N., Krawczyk, D. C., Allen, T. T., & Chapman, S. B. (2013). Virtual reality social cognition training for young adults with high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 34–44. doi: 10.1007/s10803-012-1544-6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Lord, C., Rutter, M., Goode, S., Heemsbergen, J., Jordan, H., Mawhood, L., et al. (1989). Autism diagnostic observation schedule: A standardized observation of communicative and social behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 185–212.Google Scholar
- Myers, W. R. (2000). Handling missing data in clinical trials: An overview. Drug Information Journal, 34, 525–533.Google Scholar
- Olsen, D. E., Sellers, W. A., & Phillips, R. G. (1999). The simulation of a human subject for law enforcement training. Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy.Google Scholar
- Randolph, C., Tierney, M. C., Mohr, E., & Chase, T. N. (1998). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS): Preliminary clinical validity. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20, 310–319. doi: 10.1076/jcen.20.3.310.823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Salgado, J. F., & Moscoso, S. (2002). Comprehensive meta-analysis of the construct validity of the employment interview. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11, 299–324.Google Scholar
- Sheehan, D. V., Lecrubier, Y., Sheehan, K. H., Amorim, P., Janavs, J., Weiller, E., et al. (1998). The mini-international neuropsychiatric interview (M.I.N.I.): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59(Suppl 20), 22–33.; quiz 34–57.Google Scholar
- Smith, M. J., Ginger, E. J., Wright, M. A., Wright, K., Boteler Humm, L., Olsen, D. E., et al. (in press). Virtual reality job interview training for individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.Google Scholar
- Smith, M. J., Horan, W. P., Cobia, D. J., Karpouzian, T. M., Fox, J. M., Reilly, J. L., et al. (2013). Performance-based empathy mediates the influence of working memory on social competence in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbt084.
- Sommers, M. S., Lyons, M. S., Fargo, J. D., Sommers, B. D., McDonald, C. C., Shope, J. T., et al. (2013). Emergency department-based brief intervention to reduce risky driving and hazardous/harmful drinking in young adults: A randomized controlled trial. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. doi: 10.1111/acer.12142.
- Sterne, J. A., White, I. R., Carlin, J. B., Spratt, M., Royston, P., Kenward, M. G., et al. (2009). Multiple imputation for missing data in epidemiological and clinical research: Potential and pitfalls. BMJ, 338, b2393. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b2393.
- Stichter, J. P., Laffey, J., Galyen, K., & Herzog, M. (2013). iSocial: Delivering the social competence intervention for adolescents (SCI-A) in a 3D virtual learning environment for youth with high functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi: 10.1007/s10803-013-1881-0.Google Scholar
- Tay, C., Ang, S., & Van Dyne, L. (2006). Personality, biographical characteristics, and job interview success: A longitudinal study of the mediating effects of interviewing self-efficacy and the moderatin geffects of internal locus of causality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 446–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Taylor, J. L., & Seltzer, M. M. (2011). Employment and post-secondary educational activities for young adults with autism spectrum disorders during the transition to adulthood. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 566–574. doi: 10.1007/s10803-010-1070-3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Wehman, P. H., Schall, C. M., McDonough, J., Kregel, J., Brooke, V., Molinelli, A., et al. (2013). Competitive employment for youth with autism spectrum disorders: Early results from a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi: 10.1007/s10803-013-1892-x.
- Wilkinson, G. S., & Robertson, G. J. (2006). Wide range achievement test 4 professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar