Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 46, Issue 5, pp 1538–1552 | Cite as

The “Eye Avoidance” Hypothesis of Autism Face Processing

Perception In Autism

Abstract

Although a growing body of research indicates that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit selective deficits in their ability to recognize facial identities and expressions, the source of their face impairment is, as yet, undetermined. In this paper, we consider three possible accounts of the autism face deficit: (1) the holistic hypothesis, (2) the local perceptual bias hypothesis and (3) the eye avoidance hypothesis. A review of the literature indicates that contrary to the holistic hypothesis, there is little evidence to suggest that individuals with autism do perceive faces holistically. The local perceptual bias account also fails to explain the selective advantage that ASD individuals demonstrate for objects and their selective disadvantage for faces. The eye avoidance hypothesis provides a plausible explanation of face recognition deficits where individuals with ASD avoid the eye region because it is perceived as socially threatening. Direct eye contact elicits a increased physiological response as indicated by heightened skin conductance and amygdala activity. For individuals with autism, avoiding the eyes is an adaptive strategy, however, this approach interferes with the ability to process facial cues of identity, expressions and intentions, exacerbating the social challenges for persons with ASD.

Keywords

Face recognition Eye gaze Face perception Expression perception 

References

  1. Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A. R. (1998). The human amygdala in social judgement. Nature, 393, 470–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Hill, J., Raste, Y., & Plumb, I. (2001). The “reading the mind in the eyes” test revised version: A study with normal adults, and adults with asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 42, 241–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., & Jolliffe, T. (1997). Is there a “language of the eyes”? Evidence from normal adults, and adults with autism or Asperger syndrome. Visual Cognition, 4, 311–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Battocchi, A., Ben-Sasson, A., Esposito, G., Gal, E., Pianesi, F., Tomasini, D., et al. (2010). Collaborative puzzle game: A tabletop interface for fostering collaborative skills in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Assistive Technologies, 4, 4–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Behrmann, M., Avidan, G., Leonard, G. L., Kimchi, R., Luna, B., Humphreys, K., et al. (2006a). Configural processing in autism and its relationship to face processing. Neuropsychologia, 44, 110–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Behrmann, M., Thomas, C., & Humphreys, K. (2006b). Seeing it differently: Visual processing in autism. Trends in cognitive sciences, 10(6), 258–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bertone, A., Mottron, L., Jelenic, P., & Faubert, J. (2005). Enhanced and diminished visuo-spatial information processing in autism depends on stimulus complexity. Brain, 128, 2430–2441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blair, R. J. R., Frith, U., Smith, N., Abell, F., & Cipolotti, L. (2002). Fractionation of visual memory: Agency detection and its impairment in autism. Neuropsychologia, 40, 108–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bolte, S., Feineis-Matthews, S., Leber, S., Dierks, T., Hubl, D., & Poustka, F. (2002). The development and evaluation of a computer-based program to test and to teach the recognition of facial affect. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 61(Supple 2), 61–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Boucher, J., & Lewis, V. (1992). Unfamiliar face recognition in relatively able autistic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 33, 843–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bradley, M. M., Codispoti, M., Cuthbert, B. N., & Lang, P. J. (2001). Emotion and motivation I: Defensive and appetitive reactions in picture processing. Emotion, 1(3), 276–298. doi:10.1037//1528-3542.1.3.276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bukach, C. M., LeGrand, R., Kaiser, M., Bub, D., & Tanaka, J. W. (2008). Preservation of featural and configural processing for the mouth region in a case of prospagnosia. Journal of Neuropsychology, 2, 227–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Caldara, R., Schyns, P., Mayer, E., Smith, M. L., Gosselin, F., & Rossion, B. (2005). Does prosopagnosia take the eyes out of face representations? Evidence for a defect in representing diagnostic facial information following brain damage. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 1652–1666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Calder, A. J., & Jansen, J. (2005). Configural coding of facial expressions: The impact of inversion and photographic negative. Visual Cognition, 12, 495–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Calder, A. J., Young, A. W., Keane, J., & Dean, M. (2000). Configural information in facial expression perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26, 527–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Dalton, K. M., Nacewicz, B. M., Johnstone, T., Schaefer, H. S., Gernsbacher, M. A., Goldsmith, H. H., et al. (2005). Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 519–526.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Dawson, G., Webb, S. J., & McPartland, J. (2005). Understanding the nature of face processing impairment in autism: Insights from behavioral and electrophysiological studies. Developmental Neuropsychology, 27(3), 403–424. doi:10.1207/s15326942dn2703_6.Google Scholar
  18. DeGutis, J. M., Bentin, S., Robertson, L. C., & D’Esposito, M. (2007). Functional plasticity in ventral temporal cortex following cognitive rehabilitation of a congenital prosopagnosic. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19(11), 1790–1802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Deriso, D., Susskind, J., Tanaka, J., Winkielman, P., Herrington, J., Schultz, R., et al. (2012). Exploring the facial expression perception-production link using real-time automated facial expression recognition. In A. Fitzgibbon, S. Lazebnik, Y. Sato, & C. Schmid (Eds.), European conference on computer vision. Workshop on What’s in a face. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (pp. 270–279). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  20. Deruelle, C., Rondan, C., Gepner, B., & Fagot, J. (2006). Processing of compound visual stimuli by children with autism and asperger syndrome. International Journal of Psychology, 41, 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Faja, S., Aylward, E., Bernier, R., & Dawson, G. (2007). Becoming a face expert: A computerized face training program for high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Developmental Neuropsychology, 33, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Faja, S., Webb, S. J., Merkle, K., Aylward, E., & Dawson, G. (2009). Brief report: Face configuration accuracy and processing speed among adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 532–538.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Frith, U., & Happé, F. (1994). Autism: beyond theory of mind. Cognition, 50, 115–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gauthier, I., Klaiman, C., & Schultz, R. T. (2009). Face composite effects reveal abnormal face processing in Autism spectrum disorders. Vision Research, 49, 470–478.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gauthier, I., & Tarr, M. J. (1997). Becoming a “Greeble” expert: Exploring face recognition mechanisms. Vision Research, 37, 1673–1682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gepner, B., de Gelder, B., & de Schonen, S. (1996). Face processing in autistics: Evidence for a generalised deficit? Child Neuropsychology, 2, 123–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Happé, F. (1996). Studying weak central coherence at low levels: children with autism do not succumb to visual illusions: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 37, 873–877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hauck, M., Fein, D., Maltby, S., Waterhouse, L., & Feinstein, C. (1998). Memory for faces in children with autism. Child Neuropsychology, 4, 187–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hietanen, J. K., Leppänen, J. M., Peltola, M. J., Linna-Aho, K., & Ruuhiala, H. J. (2008). Seeing direct and averted gaze activates the approach-avoidance motivational brain systems. Neuropsychologia, 46(9), 2423–2430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hobson, R., Ouston, J., & Lee, A. (1988). What’s in a face? The case of autism. British Journal of Psychology, 79, 441–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hoffman, E. A., & Haxby, J. V. (2000). Distinct representations of eye gaze and identity in the distributed human neural system for face perception. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 80–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hopkins, I. M., Gower, M. W., Perez, T. A., Smith, D. S., Amthor, F. R., Wimsatt, F. C., et al. (2011). Avatar assistant: improving social skills in students with an ASD through a computer-based intervention. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 1543–1555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jolliffe, T., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1997). Are people with autism and Asperger syndrome faster than normal on the Embedded Figures Test? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 38, 527–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jones, W., Carr, K., & Klin, A. (2008). Absence of preferential looking to the eyes of approaching adults predicts level of social disability in 2-year-old toddlers with autism spectrum disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 946–954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Joseph, R. M., Ehrman, K., McNally, R., & Keehn, B. (2008). Affective response to eye contact and face recognition ability in children with ASD. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 14, 947–955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Joseph, R. M., Keehn, B., Connolly, C., Wolfe, J. M., & Horowitz, T. S. (2009). Why is visual search superior in autism spectrum disorder? Developmental Science, 12, 1083–1096.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Joseph, R. M., & Tanaka, J. (2003). Holistic and part-based face recognition in children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 44, 529–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kandalaft, M. R., Didehbani, N., Krawczyk, D. C., Allen, T. T., & Chapman, S. B. (2013). Virtual reality social cognition training for young adults with high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(1), 34–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kanwisher, N., McDermott, J., & Chun, M. M. (1997). The fusiform face area: A module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception. Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 4302–4311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kawashima, R., Sugiura, M., Kato, T., Nakamura, A., Hatano, K., Ito, K., et al. (1999). The human amygdala plays an important role in gaze monitoring. A PET study. Brain, 122, 779–783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kemner, C., van Ewijk, L., van Engeland, H., & Hooge, I. (2008). Brief report: Eye movements during visual search tasks indicate enhanced stimulus discriminability in subjects with PDD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 553–557.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kleinke, C. L. (1986). Gaze and eye contact: A research review. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 78–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kliemann, D., Dziobek, I., Hatri, A., Baudewig, J., & Heekeren, H. R. (2012). The role of the amygdala in atypical gaze on emotional faces in autism spectrum disorders. The Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 9469–9476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Klin, A., Jones, W., Schultz, R., & Volkmar, F. (2003). The enactive mind, or from actions to cognition: Lessons from autism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 358, 345–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Klin, A., Jones, W., Schultz, R., Volkmar, F., & Cohen, D. (2002). Visual fixation patterns during viewing of naturalistic social situations as predictors of social competence in individuals with autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 809–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Klin, A., Lin, D. J., Gorrindo, P., Ramsay, G., & Jones, W. (2009). Two-year-olds with autism orient to non-social contingencies rather than biological motion. Nature, 459, 257–261.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Klin, A., Sparrow, S. S., de Bildt, A., Cicchetti, D. V., Cohen, D. J., & Volkmar, F. R. (1999). A normed study of face recognition in autism and related disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 499–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kuhl, P. K., & Meltzoff, A. N. (1982). The bimodal perception of speech in infancy. Science, 218(4577), 1138–1141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kylliainen, A., & Hietanen, J. K. (2006). Skin conductance responses to another person’s gaze in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 517–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lahaie, A., Mottron, L., Arguin, M., Berthiaume, C., Jemel, B., & Saumier, D. (2006). Face perception in high-functioning autistic adults: Evidence for superior processing of face parts, not for a configural face-processing deficit. Neuropsychology, 20, 30–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lebrecht, S., Pierce, L. J., Tarr, M. J., & Tanaka, J. W. (2009). Perceptual other-race training reduces implicit racial bias. PLoS ONE, 4, e4215.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lehmann, C., Mueller, T., Federspiel, A., Hubl, D., Schroth, G., Huber, O., et al. (2004). Dissociation between overt and unconscious face processing in fusiform face area. Neuroimage, 21, 75–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lopez, B., Donnelly, N., Hadwin, J. A., & Leekam, S. R. (2004). Face processing in high-functioning adolescents with autism: Evidence for weak central coherence. Visual Cognition, 11, 673–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McGugin, R. W., Tanaka, J. W., Lebrecht, S., Tarr, M. J., & Gauthier, I. (2011). Race-specific perceptual discrimination improvement following short individuation training with faces. Cognitive Science, 35, 330–347.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Minshew, N. J., Goldstein, G., & Siegel, D. J. (1997). Neuropsychological functioning in autism: Profile of a complex information processing disorder. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 3, 303–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Morris, J. S., deBonis, M., & Dolan, R. J. (2002). Human amygdala responses to fearful eyes. Neuroimage, 17, 214–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mottron, L., Burack, J. A., Iarocci, G., Belleville, S., & Enns, J. (2003). Locally oriented perception with intact global processing among individuals with high-functioning autism: Evidence from multiple paradigms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 904–913.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mottron, L., Dawson, M., Soulie`res, I., Hubert, B., & Burack, J. (2006). Enhanced perceptual functioning in autism: An update, and eight principles of autistic perception. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 27–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Navon, D. (1977). Forest before trees: The precedence of global features in visual perception. Cognitive Psychology, 9, 353–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nishimura, M., Rutherford, M. D., & Maurer, D. (2008). Converging evidence of configural processing of faces in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorders. Visual Cognition, 16, 859–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. O’Riordan, M. A., Plaisted, K. C., Driver, J., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2001). Superior visual search in autism. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27, 719–730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Osterling, J. A., Dawson, G., & Munson, J. A. (2002). Early recognition of 1- year-old infants with autism spectrum disorder versus mental retardation. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 239–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pelphrey, K. A., Morris, J. P., & McCarthy, G. (2005). Neural basis of eye gaze processing deficits in autism. Brain, 128, 1038–1048.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pelphrey, K. A., Sasson, N. J., Reznick, J. S., Paul, G., Goldman, B. D., & Piven, J. (2002). Visual scanning of faces in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 249–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pelphrey, K. A., Singerman, J. D., Allison, T., & McCarthy, G. (2003). Brain activation evoked by perception of gaze shifts: The influence of context. Neuropsychologia, 41, 156–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Peterson, M. F., & Eckstein, M. P. (2011). Fixating the eyes is an optimal strategy across important face (related) tasks. Journal of Vision, 11, 662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pierce, K., Muller, R. A., Ambrose, J., Allen, G., & Courchesne, E. (2001). Face processing occurs outside the fusiform ‘face area’ in autism: Evidence from functional MRI. Brain, 124, 2059–2073.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Puce, A., Allison, T., Bentin, S., Gore, J. C., & McCarthy, G. (1998). Temporal cortex activation in humans viewing eye and mouth movements. The Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 2188–2199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Puce, A., Allison, T., Gore, J. C., & McCarthy, G. (1995). Face-sensitive regions in human extrastriate cortex studied by functional MRI. Journal of Neurophysiology, 74, 1192–1199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Riby, D. M., Doherty-Sneddon, G., & Bruce, V. (2009). The eyes or the mouth? Feature salience and unfamiliar face processing in Williams syndrome and autism. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 189–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rice, K., Moriuchi, J. M., Jones, W., & Klin, A. (2012). Parsing heterogeneity in autism spectrum disorders: visual scanning of dynamic social scenes in school-aged children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(3), 238–248.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Robison, John. (2007). Look me in the eyes: My life with Asperger’s. New York City: Crown Publishers.Google Scholar
  73. Rose, F. E., Lincoln, A. J., Lai, Z., Ene, M., Searcy, Y. M., & Bellugi, U. (2007). Orientation and affective expression effects on face recognition in Williams syndrome and autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 513–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rossion, B. (n.d.). The composite face illusion: A whole window into our understanding of holistic face perception. Visual Cognition, 32, 10–47.Google Scholar
  75. Rossion, B., Kaiser, M. D., Bub, D., & Tanaka, J. W. (2009). Is the loss of diagnosticity of the eye region of the face a common aspect of acquired prosopagnosia? Journal of Neuropsychology, 3(Pt 1), 69–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rotshtein, P., Henson, R. N., Treves, A., Driver, J., & Dolan, R. J. (2005). Morphing Marilyn into Maggie dissociates physical and identity face representations in the brain. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 107–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rump, K. M., Giovannelli, J. L., Minshew, N. J., & Strauss, M. S. (2009). The development of emotion recognition in individuals with autism. Child Development, 80(5), 1434–1447. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01343.x.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rutherford, M. D., Clements, K. A., & Sekuler, A. B. (2007). Differences in discrimination of eye and mouth displacement in autism spectrum disorders. Vision Research, 47, 2099–2110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sadr, J., Jarudi, I., & Sinha, P. (2003). The role of eyebrows in face recognition. Perception, 32, 285–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Samson, F., Mottron, L., Soulières, I., & Zeffiro, T. A. (2012). Enhanced visual functioning in autism: An ALE meta-analysis. Human Brain Mapping, 33(7), 1553–1581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Scassellati, B., Admoni, H., & Matarić, M. (2012). Robots for use in autism research. Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, 14, 275–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Scherf, K. S., Behrmann, M., Minshew, N., & Luna, B. (2008). Atypical development of face and greeble recognition in autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 49, 838–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schultz, R. T. (2005). Developmental deficits in social perception in autism: The role of the amygdala and fusiform face area. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 23, 125–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schultz, R. T., Gauthier, I., Klin, A., Fulbright, R. K., Anderson, A. W., Volkmar, F., et al. (2000). Abnormal ventral temporal cortical activity during face discrimination among individuals with autism and Asperger Syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 331–340.Google Scholar
  85. Schyns, P. G., Bonnar, L., & Gosselin, F. (2002). Show me the features! Understanding recognition from the use of visual information. Psychological Science, 13, 402–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Scott, L. S., Tanaka, J. W., Sheinberg, D. L., & Curran, T. (2006). A reevaluation of the electrophysiological correlates of expert object processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 1453–1465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sekuler, A. B., Gaspar, C. M., Gold, J. M., & Bennett, P. J. (2004). Inversion leads to quantitative, not qualitative, changes in face processing. Current Biology, 14, 391–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Shah, A., & Frith, U. (1983). An islet of ability in autistic-children—A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 24, 613–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shah, A., & Frith, U. (1993). Why do autistic individuals show superior performance on the block design task? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 34, 1351–1364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Silver, M., & Oakes, P. (2001). Evaluation of a new computer intervention to teach people with autism or asperger syndrome to recognize and predict emotions in others. Autism, 5, 299–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Simmons, D. R., Robertson, A. E., McKay, L. S., Toal, E., McAleer, P., & Pollick, F. E. (2009). Vision in autism spectrum disorders. Vision Research, 49(22), 2705–2739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Smith, M. L., & Cottrell, G. W. (2005). Transmitting and decoding facial expressions. Psychological Science, 16(3), 184–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Spezio, M. L., Adolphs, R., Hurley, R. S. E., & Piven, J. (2007). Abnormal use of facial information in high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(5), 929–939.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tanaka, J. W., Curran, T., & Sheinberg, D. L. (2005). The training and transfer of real world perceptual expertise. Psychological Science, 16, 145–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tanaka, J. W., & Farah, M. J. (1993). Parts and wholes in face recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 46A, 225–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tanaka, J. W., & Pierce, L. J. (2009). The neural plasticity of other-race face recognition. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 9(1), 122–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tanaka, J. W., Wolf, J. M., Klaiman, C., Koenig, K., Cockburn, J., Herlihy, L., et al. (2010). Using computerized games to teach face recognition skills to children with autism spectrum disorder: the Let’s Face It! program. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 51, 944–952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tanaka, J. W., Wolf, J. M., Klaiman, C., Koenig, K., Cockburn, J., Herlihy, L., et al. (2012). The perception and identification of facial emotions in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders using the “Let’s Face It!” Emotion Skills Battery. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 1259–1267.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tantum, D., Monaghan, L., Nicholson, H., & Stirling, J. (1989). Autistic children’s ability to interpret faces: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 30, 623–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Teinonen, T., Aslin, R. N., Alku, P., & Csibra, G. (2008). Visual speech contributes to phonetic learning in 6-month-old infants. Cognition, 108(3), 850–855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Teunisse, J., & de Gelder, B. (2003). Face processing in adolescents with autistic disorder: The inversion and composite effects. Brain Cognition, 52, 285–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. van Belle, G., Ramon, M., Lefèvre, P., & Rossion, B. (2010). Fixation patterns during recognition of personally familiar and unfamiliar faces. Frontiers in Psychology, 1, 20.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Vinette, C., Gosselin, F., & Schyns, P. G. (2004). Spatio-temporal dynamics of face recognition in a flash: It’s in the eyes. Cognitive Science, 28, 289–301.Google Scholar
  104. Wallace, S., Coleman, M., & Bailey, A. (2008). An investigation of basic facial expression recognition in autism spectrum disorders. Cognition and Emotion, 22, 1353–1380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wang, A. T., Dapretto, M., Hariri, A. R., Sigman, M., & Bookheimer, S. Y. (2004). Neural correlates of facial affect processing in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 481–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Weigelt, S., Koldewyn, K., & Kanwisher, N. (2012). Face identity recognition in autism spectrum disorders: A review of behavioral studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(3), 1060–1084. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2011.12.008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Whalen, P. J., Kagan, J., Cook, R. G., Davis, F. C., Kim, H., Polis, S., et al. (2004). Human amygdala responsivity to masked fearful eye whites. Science, 306, 2061.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wicker, B., Michel, F., Henaff, M. A., & Decety, J. (1998). Cerebral structures involved in the perception of gaze: A PET study. NeuroImage, 8, 221–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wolf, J. M., Tanaka, J. W., Klaiman, C., Cockburn, J., Herlihy, L., Brown, C., et al. (2008). Specific impairment of face-processing abilities in children with autism spectrum disorder using the Let’s Face It! Skills Battery Autism Research, 1, 329–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wright, B., Clarke, N., Jordan, J., Young, A. W., Clarke, P., Miles, J., et al. (2008). Emotion recognition in faces and the use of visual context in young people with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 12(6), 607–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Xivry, J. -J. O., Ramon, M., Lefèvre, P., & Rossion, B. (2008). Reduced fixation on the upper area of personally familiar faces following acquired prosopagnosia. Journal of Neuropsychology, 2(1), 245–268.Google Scholar
  112. Yin, R. (1969). Looking at upside-down faces. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 81, 141–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Young, A. W., Hellawell, D., & Hay, D. C. (1987). Configurational information in face perception. Perception, 16, 747–759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zwaigenbaum, L., Bryson, S., Rogers, T., Roberts, W., Brian, J., & Szatmari, P. (2005). Behavioral manifestation of autism in the first year of life. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 23, 143–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of VictoriaVictoriaCanada
  2. 2.Department of Special Education and Leadership StudiesUniversity of VictoriaVictoriaCanada

Personalised recommendations