Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 316–335 | Cite as

Measuring the Plasticity of Social Approach: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of the PEERS Intervention on EEG Asymmetry in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

  • Amy Vaughan Van Hecke
  • Sheryl Stevens
  • Audrey M. Carson
  • Jeffrey S. Karst
  • Bridget Dolan
  • Kirsten Schohl
  • Ryan J. McKindles
  • Rheanna Remmel
  • Scott Brockman
Original Paper


This study examined whether the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS: Social skills for teenagers with developmental and autism spectrum disorders: The PEERS treatment manual, Routledge, New York, 2010a) affected neural function, via EEG asymmetry, in a randomized controlled trial of adolescents with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a group of typically developing adolescents. Adolescents with ASD in PEERS shifted from right-hemisphere gamma-band EEG asymmetry before PEERS to left-hemisphere EEG asymmetry after PEERS, versus a waitlist ASD group. Left-hemisphere EEG asymmetry was associated with more social contacts and knowledge, and fewer symptoms of autism. Adolescents with ASD in PEERS no longer differed from typically developing adolescents in left-dominant EEG asymmetry at post-test. These findings are discussed via the Modifier Model of Autism (Mundy et al. in Res Pract Persons Severe Disabl 32(2):124, 2007), with emphasis on remediating isolation/withdrawal in ASD.


Autism Adolescence EEG Asymmetry PEERS Intervention Brain Plasticity 



This research was supported by a Research Development Grant and a Regular Research Grant from Marquette University, and a Grant from the Autism Society of Southeastern Wisconsin. We would like to acknowledge undergraduate assistants Chelsea Gasaway, Grand McDonald, Noelle Fritz, Alexandra Reveles, Jenna Kahne, and Janel Wasisco. We also wish to thank Elizabeth Laugeson, Psy.D., UCLA, for her assistance in starting the PEERS program in Wisconsin, and the families that participated for their time and dedication to clinical research.


  1. Achenbach, T., & Rescorla, L. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms and profiles: An integrated system of multi-informant assessment. ASEBA.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, D., Maye, M., & Lord, C. (2011). Changes in maladaptive behaviors from midchildhood to young adulthood in autism spectrum disorder. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 116, 381–397.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashwin, C., Wheelwright, S., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2005). Laterality biases to chimeric faces in Asperger syndrome: What is right about face-processing? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(2), 183–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Banaschewski, T., & Brandeis, D. (2007). Annotation: What electrical brain activity tells us about brain function that other techniques cannot tell us–a child psychiatric perspective. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(5), 415–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnea-Goraly, N., Menon, V., Eckert, M., et al. (2005). White matter development during childhood and adolescence: A cross-sectional diffusion tensor imaging study. Cerebral Cortex, 15, 1848–1854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnhill, G., Cook, K., Tebbenhamp, K., & Myles, B. (2002). The effectiveness of social skills Intervention targeting nonverbal communication for adolescents with Asperger syndrome and related pervasive developmental delays. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17, 112–118.Google Scholar
  8. Bauminger, N., & Kasari, C. (2000). Loneliness and friendship in high-functioning children with autism. Child Development, 71, 447–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Baving, L., Laucht, M., & Schmidt, M. H. (2002). Frontal brain activation in anxious school children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(2), 265–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beglinger, L., & Smith, T. (2005). Concurrent validity of social subtype and IQ after early intensive behavioral intervention in children with autism: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(3), 295–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Benasich, A., Gou, Z., Choudhury, N., & Harris, K. (2008). Early cognitive and language skills are linked to resting frontal gamma power across the first three years. Behavioral Brain Research, 195, 215–222.Google Scholar
  12. Black, J., Jones, T., Nelson, C., & Greenough, W. (1998). Neuronal plasticity and the developing brain. In N. Alessi, J. Coyle, S. Harrison, & S. Eth (Eds.), Handbook of child and adolescent psychiatry (pp. 31–53). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Blakemore, S. (2008). The social brain in adolescence. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 267–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Boles, D. B., Barth, J. M., & Merrill, E. C. (2008). Asymmetry and performance: Toward a neurodevelopmental theory. Brain and Cognition, 66, 124–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bolte, S., Hubl, D., Feineis-Matthews, S., Prvulovic, D., Dierks, T., & Poustka, F. (2006). Facial affect recognition training in autism: Can we animate the fusiform gyrus? Behavioral Neuroscience, 120, 211–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Burnette, C. P., Henderson, H. A., Inge, A. P., Zahka, N. E., Schwartz, C. B., & Mundy, P. C. (2011). Anterior EEG asymmetry and the modifier model of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(8), 1113–1124.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Buzsáki, G., & Wang, X. J. (2012). Mechanisms of gamma oscillations. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 35, 203–225.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cacioppo, J. T., & Hawkley, L. C. (2009). Perceived social isolation and cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(10), 447–454.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cacioppo, J. T., Norris, C. J., Decety, J., Monteleone, G., & Nusbaum, H. (2009). In the eye of the beholder: Individual differences in perceived social isolation predict regional brain activation to social stimuli. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(1), 83–92.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chiron, C., Leboyer, M., Leon, F., Jambaque, L., Nuttin, C., & Syrota, A. (1995). SPECT of the brain in childhood autism: Evidence for a lack of normal hemispheric asymmetry. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 37(10), 849–860.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Constantino, J. (2005). Social responsiveness scale. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  22. Constantino, J. N., Davis, S. A., Todd, R. D., Schindler, M. K., Gross, M. M., Brophy, S. L., et al. (2003). Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: Comparison of the social responsiveness scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 427–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cotter, M. (1997). Improving the social behavior of high-functioning children with autism: A social skills support group intervention. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Alabama.Google Scholar
  24. Csicsvari, J., Jamieson, B., Wise, K. D., & Buzsáki, G. (2003). Mechanisms of gamma oscillations in the hippocampus of the behaving rat. Neuron, 37(2), 311–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Davidson, R. J. (1998). Anterior electrophysiological asymmetries, emotion, and depression: Conceptual and methodological conundrums. Psychophysiology, 35(05), 607–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Davidson, R. J. (2012). The emotional life of your brain. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  27. Davidson, R. J., Ekman, P., Saron, C. D., Senulis, J. A., & Friesen, W. V. (1990). Approach-withdrawal and cerebral asymmetry: Emotional expression and brain physiology: I. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(2), 330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Davidson, R. J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., Rosenkranz, M., Muller, D., Santorelli, S. F., et al. (2003). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65(4), 564–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Davidson, R. J., & McEwen, B. S. (2012). Social influences on neuroplasticity: Stress and interventions to promote well-being. Nature Neuroscience, 15(5), 689–695.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dawson, G. (1983). Lateralized brain dysfunction in autism: Evidence from the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13(3), 269–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dawson, G. (2008). Early behavioral intervention, brain plasticity, and the prevention of autism spectrum disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 775–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dawson, G., & Fernald, M. (1987). Perspective-taking ability and its relationship to the social behavior of autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17(4), 487–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dawson, G., Finley, C., Phillips, S., & Galpert, L. (1986). Hemispheric specialization and the language abilities of autistic children. Child Development, 57, 1440–1453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dawson, G., Klinger, L. G., Panagiotides, H., Lewy, A., & Castelloe, P. (1995). Subgroups of autistic children based on social behavior display distinct patterns of brain activity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23(5), 569–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dawson, G., Warrenburg, S., & Fuller, P. (1982). Cerebral lateralization in individuals diagnosed as autistic in early childhood. Brain and Language, 15(2), 353–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dawson, G., et al. (2010). Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: The Early Start Denver Model. Pediatrics, 125, e17–e23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dawson, G., et al. (2012). Early behavioral intervention is associated with normalized brain activity in young children with autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51, 1150–1159.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Delorme, A., & Makeig, S. (2004). EEGLAB: An open source toolbox for analysis of single-trial EEG dynamics including independent component analysis. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 134(1), 9–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ehlers, S., Gillberg, C., & Wing, L. (1999). A screening questionnaire for Asperger syndrome and other high-functioning autism spectrum disorders in school-age children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 129–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Engel, A., Fries, P., & Singer, W. (2001). Dynamic predictions: Oscillations and synchrony in top-down processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 704–716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Eussen, M. L., Van Gool, A. R., Verheij, F., De Nijs, P. F., Verhulst, F. C., & Greaves-Lord, K. (2012). The association of quality of social relations, symptom severity and intelligence with anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, Oct 8, 2012 Epub ahead of print.Google Scholar
  42. Faja, A., Webb, S., Jones, E., Merkle, K., Kamara, D., Bavaro, J., et al. (2012). The effects of face expertise training on the behavioral performance and brain activity of adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 278–293.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fiebach, C., Rissman, J., & D’Esposita, M. (2006). Modulation of inferotemporal cortex activation during working memory maintenance. Neuron, 51, 251–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Fone, K. C., & Porkess, M. V. (2008). Behavioural and neurochemical effects of post-weaning social isolation in rodents—Relevance to developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32(6), 1087–1102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Foucher, J., Otzenberger, H., & Gounot, D. (2003). The BOLD response and gamma oscillations respond differently than evoked potentials: An interleaved EEG-fMRI study. BMC Neuroscience, 4, 22.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Fox, N. A. (1991). If it’s not left, it’s right: Electroencephalograph asymmetry and the development of emotion. American Psychologist, 46(8), 863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Fox, N. A. (1994). Dynamic cerebral processes underlying emotion regulation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(2–3), 152–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Fox, N. A., Henderson, H. A., Rubin, K. H., Calkins, S. D., & Schmidt, L. A. (2001). Continuity and discontinuity of behavioral inhibition and exuberance: Psychophysiological and behavioral influences across the first four years of life. Child Development, 72(1), 1–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Frankel, F., & Myatt, R. (2003). Children’s friendship training. New York: Brunner-Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Frankel, F., & Myatt, R. (2007). Parent-assisted friendship training for children with autism spectrum disorders: Effects associated with psychotropic medication. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 37, 337–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Frey, H. P., Naber, M., Einhäuser, W., & Foxe, J. (2009). The role of Gamma oscillations in binding ambiguous visual input into coherent percepts. Journal of Vision, 9(8), 923.Google Scholar
  52. Gabbard, G. (2000). A neurobiologically informed perspective on psychotherapy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 117–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Ghaziuddin, M., & Zafar, S. (2008). Psychiatric comorbidity of adults with autism spectrum disorders. Clinical Neuropsychiatry: Journal of Treatment Evaluation, 5, 9–12.Google Scholar
  54. Giedd, J., Blumenthal, J., Jeffries, N., Castellanos, F., Liu, H., Zijdenbos, A., et al. (1999). Brain development during childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal MRI study. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 861–863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Gogtay, N., Giedd, J. N., Lusk, L., Hayashi, K. M., Greenstein, D., Vaituzis, A. C., et al. (2004). Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(21), 8174–8179.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gogtay, N., & Thompson, P. M. (2010). Mapping gray matter development: Implications for typical development and vulnerability to psychopathology. Brain and Cognition, 72(1), 6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gray, J. A., & McNaughton, N. (2000). Fundamentals of the septo-hippocampal system. In J. A. Gray & N. McNaughton (Eds.), Neuropsychology of anxiety (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Greene, D. J., Colich, N., Iacoboni, M., Zaidel, E., Bookheimer, S. Y., & Dapretto, M. (2011). Atypical neural networks for social orienting in autism spectrum disorders. NeuroImage, 56(1), 354–362.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Greenough, W. T., & Black, J. E. (1992). Induction of brain structure by experience: Substrates for cognitive development. In M. R. Gunnar & C. A. Nelson (Eds.), Developmental and behavioral neuroscience: The Minnesota symposia on child psychology, Vol. 24 (pp. 155–200). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  60. Gunter, H. L., Ghaziuddin, M., & Ellis, H. D. (2002). Asperger syndrome: Tests of right hemisphere functioning and interhemispheric communication. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(4), 263–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Güntürkün, O., & Manns, M. (2010). The embryonic development of visual asymmetry in the pigeon. In K. Hugdahl & R. Westerhausen (Eds.), The two halves of the brain (pp. 121–142). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  62. Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2010). Loneliness matters: A theoretical and empirical review of consequences and mechanisms. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 40(2), 218–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Haznedar, M., Buchsbaum, M., Hazlett, E., LiCalzi, E., Cartwright, C., & Hollander, E. (2006). Volumetric analysis and three-dimensional glucose metabolic mapping of the striatum and thalamus in patients with autism spectrum disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(7), 1252–1263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Heinrich, L. M., & Gullone, E. (2006). The clinical significance of loneliness: A literature review. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(6), 695–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Heller, W., Nitschke, J. B., & Lindsay, D. L. (1997). Neuropsychological correlates of arousal in self-reported emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 11(4), 383–402.Google Scholar
  66. Herbert, M. R., Ziegler, D. A., Deutsch, C. K., O’Brien, L. M., Kennedy, D. N., Filipek, P. A., et al. (2005). Brain asymmetries in autism and developmental language disorder: A nested whole-brain analysis. Brain, 128(1), 213–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Herbert, M. R., Ziegler, D. A., Makris, N., Filipek, P. A., Kemper, T. L., Normandin, J. J., et al. (2004). Localization of white matter volume increase in autism and developmental language disorder. Annals of Neurology, 55(4), 530–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Herrmann, C. S., Munk, M. H., & Engel, A. K. (2004). Cognitive functions of gamma-band activity: Memory match and utilization. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(8), 347–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., & Layton, J. B. (2010). Social relationships and mortality risk: A meta-analytic review. PLoS Medicine, 7(7), e1000316.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Howell, D. C. (2012). Statistical methods for psychology (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Google Scholar
  71. Huttenlocher, P., & de Courten, C. (1987). The development of synapses in striate cortex of man. Human Neurobiology, 6, 1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Just, M., Keller, T., Malave, V., Kana, R., & Varma, S. (2012). Autism as a neural systems disorder: A theory of frontal-posterior underconnectivity. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36, 1292–1313.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Kaufman, A., & Kaufman, N. (2005). Kaufman brief intelligence test (2nd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  74. Kim, J. A., Szatmari, P., Bryson, S. E., Streiner, D. L., & Wilson, F. J. (2000). The prevalence of anxiety and mood problems among children with autism and Asperger syndrome. Autism, 4(2), 117–132.Google Scholar
  75. Kleinhans, N., Richards, T., Sterling, L., Stegbauer, K., Mahurin, R., Johnson, L., et al. (2008). Abnormal functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorders during face processing. Brain, 131, 1000–1012.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Koslov, K., Mendes, W. B., Pajtas, P. E., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2011). Asymmetry in resting intracortical activity as a buffer to social threat. Psychological Science, 22(5), 641–649.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kross, E., Berman, M. G., Mischel, W., Smith, E. E., & Wager, T. D. (2011). Social rejection shares somatosensory representations with physical pain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(15), 6270–6275.Google Scholar
  78. Kylliäinen, A., Wallace, S., Coutanche, M. N., Leppänen, J. M., Cusack, J., Bailey, A. J., et al. (2012). Affective–motivational brain responses to direct gaze in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 790–797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lasgaard, M., Nielsen, A., Eriksen, M. E., & Goossens, L. (2010). Loneliness and social support in adolescent boys with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(2), 218–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Laugeson, E., & Frankel, F. (2010a). Social skills for teenagers with developmental and autism spectrum disorders: The PEERS treatment manual. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  81. Laugeson, E., & Frankel, F. (2010b). Adolescent mental status checklist. In The PEERS Treatment Manual. New York: Routledge. Google Scholar
  82. Laugeson, E. A., Frankel, F., Gantman, A., Dillon, A. R., & Mogil, C. (2012). Evidence-based social skills training for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: The UCLA PEERS Program. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(6), 1025–1036.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Laugeson, E., Frankel, F., Mogil, C., & Dillon, A. (2009). Parent-assisted social skills training to improve friendships in teens with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 596–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Lewis, J., Theilmann, R., Fonov, V., Bellec, P., Lincoln, A., Evans, A., et al. (2012). Callosal fiber length and interhemispheric connectivity in adults with autism: Brain overgrowth and underconnectivity. Human Brain Mapping,. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22018.Google Scholar
  85. Lo, Y. C., Soong, W. T., Gau, S. S. F., Wu, Y. Y., Lai, M. C., Yeh, F. C., et al. (2011). The loss of asymmetry and reduced interhemispheric connectivity in adolescents with autism: A study using diffusion spectrum imaging tractography. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 192(1), 60–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Lopata, C., Toomey, J. A., Fox, J. D., Volker, M. A., Chow, S. Y., Thomeer, M. L., et al. (2010). Anxiety and depression in children with HFASDs: Symptom levels and source differences. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(6), 765–776.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Lopez-Duran, N. L., Nusslock, R., George, C., & Kovacs, M. (2012). Frontal EEG asymmetry moderates the effects of stressful life events on internalizing symptoms in children at familial risk for depression. Psychophysiology, 49, 510–521.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lord, C., Rutter, M., Dilavore, P., & Risi, S. (1999). Autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  89. Luciana, M. (2010). Adolescent brain development: Current themes and future directions. Introduction to the special issue. Brain and Cognition, 72(1), 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Rawlings, N. B., Ricard, M., & Davidson, R. J. (2004). Long-term meditators self-induce high-amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(46), 16369–16373.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Makinodan, M., Rosen, K. M., Ito, S., & Corfas, G. (2012). A critical period for social experience–dependent oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination. Science, 337(6100), 1357–1360.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Marsh, R., Gerber, A., & Peterson, B. (2008). Neuroimaging studies of normal brain development and their relevance for understanding childhood neuropsychiatric disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 1233–1251.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Mathersul, D., Williams, L. M., Hopkinson, P. J., & Kemp, A. H. (2008). Investigating models of affect: Relationships among EEG alpha asymmetry, depression, and anxiety. Emotion, 8(4), 560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. McPartland, J. C., & Pelphrey, K. A. (2012). The implications of social neuroscience for social disability. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 1256–1262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Mehta, M. A., Golembo, N. I., Nosarti, C., Colvert, E., Mota, A., Williams, S. C., et al. (2009). Amygdala, hippocampal and corpus callosum size following severe early institutional deprivation: The English and Romanian adoptees study pilot. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(8), 943–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Meyer, J. A., Mundy, P. C., Van Hecke, A. V., & Durocher, J. S. (2006). Social attribution processes and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome. Autism, 10(4), 383–402.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Minshew, N., & Keller, T. (2010). The nature of brain dysfunction in autism: Functional brain imaging studies. Current Opinion in Neurology, 23, 124–130.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Miskovic, V., Schmidt, L. A., Georgiades, K., Boyle, M., & Macmillan, H. L. (2010). Adolescent females exposed to child maltreatment exhibit atypical EEG coherence and psychiatric impairment: Linking early adversity, the brain, and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 22(02), 419–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Mitchell, A. M., & Pössel, P. (2011). Frontal brain activity pattern predicts depression in adolescent boys. Biological Psychology, 89, 525–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Mognon, A., Jovicich, J., Bruzzone, L., & Buiatti, M. (2010). ADJUST: An automatic EEG artifact detector based on the joint use of spatial and temporal features. Psychophysiology, 48(2), 229–240.Google Scholar
  101. Moncrieff, D. (2010). Hemispheric asymmetry in pediatric developmental disorders: Autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and dyslexia. In K. Hugdahl & R. Westerhausen (Eds.), The two halves of the brain (pp. 561–602). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  102. Moscovitch, D. A., Santesso, D. L., Miskovic, V., McCabe, R. E., Antony, M. M., & Schmidt, L. A. (2011). Frontal EEG asymmetry and symptom response to cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with social anxiety disorder. Biological Psychology, 87(3), 379–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Mundy, P. (1995). Joint attention and social-emotional approach behavior in children with autism. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 63–82.Google Scholar
  104. Mundy, P. C. (2003). Annotation: The neural basis of social impairments in autism: The role of the dorsal medial-frontal cortex and anterior cingulate system. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 44, 793–809.Google Scholar
  105. Mundy, P. C., Henderson, H. A., Inge, A. P., & Coman, D. C. (2007). The modifier model of autism and social development in higher functioning children. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities: The Journal of TASH, 32(2), 124.Google Scholar
  106. Mundy, P., Sigman, M., & Kasari, C. (1990). A longitudinal study of joint attention and language development in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20, 115–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Nelson, C. A. (2000). Neural plasticity and human development: The role of early experience in sculpting memory systems. Developmental Science, 3(2), 115–136.Google Scholar
  108. Neuhaus, E., Beauchaine, T., & Bernier, R. (2010). Neurobiological correlates of social functioning in autism. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 733–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Ong, A. D., Rothstein, J. D., & Uchino, B. N. (2012). Loneliness accentuates age differences in cardiovascular responses to social evaluative threat. Psychology and Aging, 27(1), 190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Osipova, D., Hermes, D., & Jensen, O. (2008). Gamma power is phase-locked to posterior alpha activity. PLoS One, 3(12), e3990.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Ozonoff, S., & Miller, J. (1995). Teaching theory of mind: A new approach to social skills training for individuals with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 415–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Palmer, J. A., Makeig, S., Kreutz-Delgado, K. & Rao, B. D. (2008). Newton method for the ICA mixture model. In Proceedings of the 33rd IEEE International Conference on Acoustics and Signal Processing (ICASSP 2008), Las Vegas, NV, pp. 1805–1808.Google Scholar
  113. Pardini, M., Elia, M., Garaci, F. G., Guida, S., Coniglione, F., Krueger, F., et al. (2012). Long-term cognitive and behavioral therapies, combined with augmentative communication, are related to uncinate fasciculus integrity in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(4), 585–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Paus, T. (2010). Growth of white matter in the adolescent brain: Myelin or axon? Brain and Cognition, 72(1), 26–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Pizzagalli, D. A., Sherwood, R. J., Henriques, J. B., & Davidson, R. J. (2005). Frontal brain asymmetry and reward responsiveness: A source-localization study. Psychological Science, 16(10), 805–813.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Reichow, B., Steiner, A., & Volkmar, F. (2013). Social skills groups for people aged 6 to 21 with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Evidence-based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal, 8(2), 266–315. Google Scholar
  117. Ribary, U. (2005). Dynamics of thalamo-cortical network oscillations and human perception. Progress in Brain Research, 150, 127–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Rinehart, N. J., Bradshaw, J. L., Brereton, A. V., & Tonge, B. J. (2002). A clinical and neurobehavioural review of high-functioning autism and Asperger’s disorder. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 36(6), 762–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Rodriguez, E., George, N., Lachaux, J. P., Martinerie, J., Renault, B., & Varela, F. J. (1999). Perception’s shadow: Long-distance synchronization of human brain activity. Nature, 397(6718), 430–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Russo, N. M., Hornickel, J., Nicol, T., Zecker, S., & Kraus, N. (2010). Biological changes in auditory function following training in children with autism spectrum disorders. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 6(1), 60.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Sabbagh, M. A. (1999). Communicative intentions and language: Evidence from right-hemisphere damage and autism. Brain and Language, 70(1), 29–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Scheeringa, R., et al. (2011). Neuronal dynamics underlying high- and low-frequency EEG oscillations contribute independently to the human BOLD signal. Neuron, 69, 572–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Schmithorst, V. J., & Yuan, W. (2010). White matter development during adolescence as shown by diffusion MRI. Brain and Cognition, 72(1), 16–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Schwartz, C. B., Henderson, H. A., Inge, A. P., Zahka, N. E., Coman, D. C., Kojkowski, N. M., et al. (2009). Temperament as a predictor of symptomotology and adaptive functioning in adolescents with high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(6), 842–855.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Shamay-Tsoory, S. G., Gev, E., Aharon-Peretz, J., & Adler, N. (2010). Brain asymmetry in emotional processing in Asperger syndrome. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 23(2), 74–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Shea, V., & Mesibov, G. B. (2005). Adolescents and adults with autism. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders, diagnosis, development, neurobiology, and behavior (3rd ed., pp. 288–311). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  127. Sherer, M. R., & Schreibman, L. (2005). Individual behavioral profiles and predictors of treatment effectiveness for children with autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(3), 525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Sheridan, M. A., Fox, N. A., Zeanah, C. H., McLaughlin, K. A., & Nelson, C. A. (2012). Variation in neural development as a result of exposure to institutionalization early in childhood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(32), 12927–12932.Google Scholar
  129. Singer, W. (1999). Striving for coherence. Nature, 397(4), 391–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Smith, C. L., & Bell, M. A. (2010). Stability in infant frontal asymmetry as a predictor of toddlerhood internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Developmental Psychobiology, 52(2), 158–167.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Solomon, M., Goodlin-Jones, B., & Anders, T. (2004). A social adjustment enhancement intervention for high functioning autism, Asperger’s syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder NOS. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 649–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Sowell, E., Thompson, P., Holmes, C., Jernigan, T., & Toga, A. (1999). In vivo evidence for post-adolescent brain maturation in frontal and striatal regions. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 859–861.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Steinberg, L., & Morris, A. (2001). Adolescent development. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 83–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Steinmetz, H., Herzog, A., Schlaug, G., Huang, Y., & Jäncke, L. (1995). Brain (a) symmetry in monozygotic twins. Cerebral Cortex, 5(4), 296–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Stewart, M., Barnard, L., Pearson, J., Hasan, R., & O’Brien, G. (2006). Presentation of depression in autism and Asperger syndrome. Autism, 10, 103–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Stroganova, T. A., Nygren, G., Tsetlin, M. M., Posikera, I. N., Gillberg, C., Elam, M., et al. (2007). Abnormal EEG lateralization in boys with autism. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118(8), 1842–1854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Sutton, S. K., Burnette, C. P., Mundy, P. C., Meyer, J., Vaughan, A., Sanders, C., et al. (2005). Resting cortical brain activity and social behavior in higher functioning children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(2), 211–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Sutton, S. K., & Davidson, R. J. (1997). Prefrontal brain asymmetry: A biological substrate of the behavioral approach and inhibition systems. Psychological Science, 8(3), 204–210.Google Scholar
  139. Symes, W., & Humphrey, N. (2010). Peer-group indicators of social inclusion among pupils with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in mainstream secondary schools: A comparative study. School Psychology International, 31(5), 478–494.Google Scholar
  140. Tantam, D. (2003). The challenge of adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome. Child Adolescence and Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 12, 143–163.Google Scholar
  141. Thompson, P., Giedd, J., Woods, R., MacDonald, D., Evans, A., & Toga, A. (2000). Growth patterns in the developing brain detected by using continuum mechanical tensor maps. Nature, 404, 190–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Thurm, A., Bishop, S., & Shumway, S. (2011). Developmental issues and milestones. In J. Matson & P. Sturmey (Eds.), International handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (pp. 159–173). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  143. Tomarken, A. J., Davidson, R. J., Wheeler, R. E., & Doss, R. C. (1992). Individual differences in anterior brain asymmetry and fundamental dimensions of emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(4), 676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Tse, J., Strulovitch, J., Tagalakis, V., Meng, L., & Fombonne, E. (2007). Social skills training for adolescents with Asperger’s syndrome and high functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1960–1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Uchino, B. N., Cacioppo, J. T., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (1996). The relationship between social support and physiological processes: A review with emphasis on underlying mechanisms and implications for health. Psychological Bulletin, 119(3), 488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Varela, F., Lachaux, J., Rodriguez, E., & Martinerie, J. (2001). The brain web: Phase synchronization and large-scale integration. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 229–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Vaughan Van Hecke, A., Meyer, A., Stevens, S., Dolan, B., Karst, J., Schohl, K., et al. (2012). PEERS treatment leads to increased neural activity in adolescents with ASD. Poster presented at the 9th International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR), Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  148. Wan, C. Y., Marchina, S., Norton, A., & Schlaug, G. (2012). Atypical hemispheric asymmetry in the arcuate fasciculus of completely nonverbal children with autism. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1252(1), 332–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. White, S., Leonig, K., & Scahill, L. (2007). Social skills development in children with autism spectrum disorders: A review of the intervention research. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1858–1868.Google Scholar
  150. White, S. W., & Roberson-Nay, R. (2009). Anxiety, social deficits, and loneliness in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(7), 1006–1013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Whitehouse, A. J., Durkin, K., Jaquet, E., & Ziatas, K. (2009). Friendship, loneliness and depression in adolescents with Asperger’s Syndrome. Journal of Adolescence, 32(2), 309–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Wing, L. (1981). Language, social, and cognitive impairments in autism and severe mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11, 31–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Yakovlev, P., & Lecours, A. (1967). The myelogenetic cycles of regional maturation in the brain. In A. Minkowski (Ed.), Regional development of the brain in early life (pp. 3–70). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amy Vaughan Van Hecke
    • 1
  • Sheryl Stevens
    • 1
  • Audrey M. Carson
    • 1
  • Jeffrey S. Karst
    • 1
  • Bridget Dolan
    • 1
  • Kirsten Schohl
    • 1
  • Ryan J. McKindles
    • 2
  • Rheanna Remmel
    • 1
  • Scott Brockman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyMarquette UniversityMilwaukeeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical EngineeringMarquette UniversityMilwaukeeUSA

Personalised recommendations