The Social Behavioral Phenotype in Boys and Girls with an Extra X Chromosome (Klinefelter Syndrome and Trisomy X): A Comparison with Autism Spectrum Disorder
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The present study aimed to gain more insight in the social behavioral phenotype, and related autistic symptomatology, of children with an extra X chromosome in comparison to children with ASD. Participants included 60 children with an extra X chromosome (34 boys with Klinefelter syndrome and 26 girls with Trisomy X), 58 children with ASD and 106 controls, aged 9 to 18 years. We used the Autism Diagnostic Interview, Social Responsiveness Scale, Social Anxiety Scale and Social Skills Rating System. In the extra X group, levels of social dysfunction and autism symptoms were increased, being in between controls and ASD. In contrast to the ASD group, the extra X group showed increased social anxiety. The effects were similar for boys and girls with an extra X chromosome.
KeywordsKlinefelter Trisomy X Autism Social functioning X chromosome Sex chromosomal aneuploidies
This work was supported by a VENI grant (Grant Number 016.095.060 to SvR) from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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