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Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 43, Issue 10, pp 2280–2294 | Cite as

How to Use the ADI-R for Classifying Autism Spectrum Disorders? Psychometric Properties of Criteria from the Literature in 1,204 Dutch Children

  • Annelies de Bildt
  • Iris J. Oosterling
  • Natasja D. J. van Lang
  • Sanne Kuijper
  • Vera Dekker
  • Sjoerd Sytema
  • Anoek M. Oerlemans
  • Daphne J. van Steijn
  • Janne C. Visser
  • Nanda N. Rommelse
  • Ruud B. Minderaa
  • Herman van Engeland
  • Rutger-Jan van der Gaag
  • Jan K. Buitelaar
  • Maretha V. de Jonge
Original Paper

Abstract

The algorithm of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised provides criteria for autism versus non-autism according to DSM-IV. Criteria for the broader autism spectrum disorders are needed. This study investigated the validity of seven sets of criteria from the literature, in 1,204 Dutch children (aged 3–18 years) with and without mental retardation. The original criteria (Rutter et al. in ADI-R Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised. Manual. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, 2003) well discriminated ASD from non-ASD in MR. All other criteria (IMGSAC in Am Soc Hum Genet 69:570–581 2001; Sung et al. in Am J Hum Genet 76: 68–81, 2005; Risi et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45: 1094–1103, 2006) were sensitive at the cost of specificity, bearing the risk of overinclusiveness. In the group without MR, clinicians should decide whether sensitivity or specificity is aimed for, to choose the appropriate criteria. Including the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule revised algorithms in the classification, the specificity increases, at the cost of sensitivity. This study adds to a more valid judgment on which criteria to use for specific objectives.

Keywords

ADI-R Autism ASD Diagnosis Classification Validity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the Korczak Foundation and several Grants assigned by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO): #94033029, #91610024, #27770005 and #157003005.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annelies de Bildt
    • 1
    • 2
    • 9
  • Iris J. Oosterling
    • 3
  • Natasja D. J. van Lang
    • 4
  • Sanne Kuijper
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Vera Dekker
    • 2
  • Sjoerd Sytema
    • 10
  • Anoek M. Oerlemans
    • 3
    • 7
  • Daphne J. van Steijn
    • 3
  • Janne C. Visser
    • 3
  • Nanda N. Rommelse
    • 3
    • 7
    • 8
  • Ruud B. Minderaa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Herman van Engeland
    • 6
  • Rutger-Jan van der Gaag
    • 3
    • 7
  • Jan K. Buitelaar
    • 3
    • 8
  • Maretha V. de Jonge
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryUniversity Medical Center GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Accare GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University CenterNijmegenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryLeiden University Medical Center, CuriumLeidenThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Center for Language and CognitionUniversity of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands
  6. 6.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Institute of NeuroscienceUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  7. 7.Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and BehaviourRadboud University Nijmegen Medical CenterNijmegenThe Netherlands
  8. 8.Department of Psychiatry, Nijmegen Center for Evidence-Based Practice (NCEBP)Radboud University Nijmegen Medical CenterNijmegenThe Netherlands
  9. 9.Accare, UCKJP GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands
  10. 10.Department of PsychiatryUniversity Medical Center GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands

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