The Relationship Between Grey-Matter and ASD and ADHD Traits in Typical Adults
- 1.1k Downloads
We tested whether in 85 healthy adults (18–29 years) there is a relationship between grey-matter (GM) volume and autism and ADHD symptom severity. The structural MRI findings and autism and ADHD self-reports revealed that autism and ADHD symptom severity was correlated with GM volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Autism symptom-severity was correlated with the left posterior cingulate, ADHD with the right parietal lobe, right temporal frontal cortex, bilateral thalamus, and left hippocampus/amygdala complex. Symptom severity of both disorders form a continuum extending into the general population, but it seems to be an oversimplification to typify psychiatric disorders such as autism and ADHD solely as extremes of brain structure abnormalities.
KeywordsADHD Autism ASD VBM Grey-matter sMRI
We thank Andries van der Leij and Romke Rouw for various fruitful discussions. We thank Sanne van den Bergh for assisting us with the manuscript preparation.
Conflict of interest
None of the authors, Hilde M. Geurts, K. Richard Ridderinkhof, and Steven H. Scholte, reported any biomedical financial interests of other potential conflicts of interest.
- Baron Cohen, S. (2001). Theory of mind and autism: A review. In L. M. Glidden (Ed.), International review of research in mental retardation: Autism (Vol. 23, pp. 169–184). San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Batty, M. J., Liddle, E. B., Pitiot, A., Toro, R., Groom, M. J., Scerif, G., et al. (2010). Cortical gray matter in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A structural magnetic resonance imaging study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(3), 229–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brieber, S., Neufang, S., Bruning, N., Kamp Becker, I., Remschmidt, H., Herpertz Dahlmann, B., et al. (2007). Structural brain abnormalities in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(12), 1251–1258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Di Martino, A., Ross, K., Uddin, L. Q., Sklar, A. B., Castellanos, F. X., & Milham, M. P. (2009a). Functional brain correlates of social and nonsocial processes in autism spectrum disorders: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis. Biological Psychiatry, 65(1), 63–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hyde, K., Samson, F., Evans, E., & Mottron, L. (2009). Neuroanatomical differences in brain areas implicated in perceptual and other core features of autism revealed by cortical thickness analysis and voxel based morphometry. Human Brain Mapping, 31, 556–566.Google Scholar
- Kessler, R. C., Adler, L. A., Barkley, R., Biederman, J., Conners, C. K., Faraone, S. V., et al. (2005). Patterns and predictors of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder persistence into adulthood: Results from the national comorbidity survey replication. Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1442–1451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kooij, J. S., Boonstra, A. M., Vermeulen, S. H., Heister, A. G., Burger, H., Buitelaar, J. K., et al. (2008). Response to methylphenidate in adults with ADHD is associated with a polymorphism in SLC6A3 (DAT1). American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 147B(2), 201–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Reid, R., DuPaul, G. J., Power, T. J., Anastopoulos, A. D., Rogers-Adkinson, D., Noll, M. B., et al. (1998). Assessing culturally different students for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using behavior rating scales. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26(3), 187–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rommelse, N. N. J., Geurts, H. M., Franke, B., Buitelaar, J. K., & Hartman, C. A. (2011). A review on cognitive and brain endophenotypes that may be common in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and facilitate the search for pleiotropic genes. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35(6), 1363–1396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Semrud-Clikeman, M., Pliszka, S. R., Bledsoe, J., & Lancaster, J. (2012). Volumetric MRI differences in treatment naive and chronically treated adolescents with ADHD-combined type. Journal of Attention Disorders. doi: 10.1177/1087054712443158.
- Uterwijk, J. (2000). WAIS-III Nederlandstalige bewerking. Technische handleiding. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
- Via, E., Radua, J., Cardoner, N., Happe, F., & Mataix-Cols, D. (2011). Meta-analysis of gray matter abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder: Should Asperger disorder be subsumed under a broader umbrella of autistic spectrum disorder? Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(4), 409–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wechsler, D. (2001). WAIS-III Canadian technical manual. Toronto, ON, Canada: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar