Developing a Vocational Index for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders
- First Online:
Existing methods of indexing the vocational activities of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have made significant contributions to research. Nonetheless, they are limited by problems with sensitivity and reliability. We developed an index of vocational and educational outcomes that captures the full range of activities experienced by adults with ASD, and that can be reliably coded across studies using specific decision rules. To develop this index, we used employment, vocational, and educational data collected from nearly 350 adults with ASD at 6 times over 12 years, as part of a larger longitudinal study. The resulting index consists of 11 categories coded on a 9-point scale, ranging from competitive employment and/or postsecondary educational program to no vocational/educational activities.
KeywordsAutism spectrum disorders Adult Postsecondary education Employment
- Aud, S., Hussar, W., Kena, G., Bianco, K., Frohlich, L., Kemp, J., et al. (2011). The condition of education 2011. NCES 2011-033. (pp. 410 p.). [S.l.]: Distributed by ERIC Clearinghouse.Google Scholar
- Esbensen, A. J., Bishop, S. L., Seltzer, M. M., Greenberg, J. S., & Taylor, J. L. (2010). Comparisons between individuals with autism spectrum disorders and individuals with Down syndrome in adulthood. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 115(4), 277–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Garcia-Villamisar, D., Ross, D., & Wehman, P. (2000). Clinical differential anlaysis of persons with autism in a work setting: A follow-up study. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 14, 183–185.Google Scholar
- Garcia-Villamisar, D., Wehman, P., & Navarro, M. D. (2002). Changes in the quality of autistic people’s life that work in supported and sheltered employment: A 5-year follow-up study. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 17, 309–312.Google Scholar
- Gerhardt, P. (2011). Bridges to adulthood: Promoting competence and quality of life. Salt Lake City, UT: Workshop sponsored by Autism Speaks.Google Scholar
- Howlin, P. (2005). Outcomes in autism spectrum disorders. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 201–220). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
- IDEAdata.org (2010). Annual report tables. http://www.ideadata.org/PartBdata.asp. Accessed Feb 8 2010.
- Lord, C., & Bailey, A. (2002). Autism spectrum disorders. In M. Rutter & E. Taylor (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychiatry (pp. 664–681). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar
- Lotter, V. (1978). Follow-up studies. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.), Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment (pp. 475–495). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
- Newman, L., Wagner, M., Knokey, A.-M., Marder, C., Nagle, K., Shaver, D., et al. (2011). The post-high school outcomes of young adults with disabilities up to 8 years after high school a report from the national longitudinal transition study-2 (NLTS2). NCSER 2011-3005. [S.l.]: Distributed by ERIC Clearinghouse.Google Scholar
- Seltzer, M. M., Greenberg, J. S., Taylor, J. L., Smith, L. E., Orsmond, G. I., Esbensen, A., et al. (2011). Adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders. In D. G. Amaral, G. Dawson, & D. H. Geschwind (Eds.), Autism spectrum disorders (pp. 241–252). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Sparrow, S. S., Carter, A. S., & Cicchetti, D. (1993). Vineland screener. New Haven, CT: Yale University, Child Study Center.Google Scholar