Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 42, Issue 11, pp 2450–2459

Assessing Autistic Traits in a Taiwan Preschool Population: Cross-Cultural Validation of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)

  • Jessica Wang
  • Li-Ching Lee
  • Ying-Sheue Chen
  • Ju-Wei Hsu
Original Paper

Abstract

The cross-cultural validity of the Mandarin-adaptation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS) was examined in a sample of N = 307 participants in Taiwan, 140 typically developing and 167 with clinically-diagnosed developmental disorders. This scale is an autism assessment tool that provides a quantitative rather than categorical measure of social impairment in the general population. SRS total and subscale scores distinguished significantly between autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disorders (p < 0.01). Total SRS scores and sensitivity and specificity of the scale for diagnosing developmental disorders in the Taiwan study were similar to those observed in Western studies. These findings support the cross-cultural validity of the SRS scale for detecting autistic traits and for distinguishing between autism and other neuropsychiatric conditions.

Keywords

SRS Taiwan Cross-cultural Validity Autism spectrum disorder 

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1966). The classification of children’s psychiatric symptoms: A factor analytic study. Psychological Monographs, 80, 1–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. S. (1981). Behavioral problems and competencies reported by parents of normal and disturbed children aged four through sixteen. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 46, 1–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (2010). A 09 Autism Spectrum Disorder. American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Development. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from http://www.dsm5.org/ProposedRevisions.
  5. Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2000 Principal Investigators; CDC. (2009). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders: Autism and developmental disability monitoring network, United States, 2006. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 58, 1–20.Google Scholar
  6. Bolte, S., Poustka, F., & Constantino, J. N. (2008). Assessing autistic traits: Cross-cultural validation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS). Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research, 1, 354–363.Google Scholar
  7. Bölte, S., Westerwald, E., Holtmann, M., Freitag, C., & Poustka, F. (2010). Autistic traits and autism spectrum disorders: The clinical validity of two measures presuming a continuum of social communication skills. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 66–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carpenter Rich, E., Loo, S. K., Yang, M., Dang, J., & Smalley, S. L. (2009). Social functioning difficulties in ADHD: Association with PDD risk. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 14, 329–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cicchetti, D. V. (1994). Guidelines criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and standardized assessment instruments in psychology. Psychological Assessment, 6, 284–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cicchetti, D. V., Volkmar, F. R., Klin, A., & Showalter, D. (1995). Diagnosing Autism using ICD-10 criteria: A comparison of neural networks, and standard multivariate procedures. Child Neuropsychology, 1, 26–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark, T., Feehan, C., Tinline, C., & Vostanis, P. (1999). Autistic symptoms in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 8, 50–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2005). The social responsiveness scale (SRS) manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  13. Constantino, J. N., LaVesser, P. D., Zhang, Y., Abbacchi, A. M., Gray, T., & Todd, R. D. (2007). Rapid quantitative assessment of social impairment by classroom teachers. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(12), 1668–1676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Constantino, J. N., Przybeck, T., Friesen, D., & Todd, R. D. (2000). Reciprocal social behavior in children with and without pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 21, 2–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Constantino, J. N., & Todd, R. D. (2003). Autistic traits in the general population: A twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 524–530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Constantino, J. N., Zhang, Y., Frazier, T., Abbacchi, A. M., & Law, P. (2010). Sibling recurrence and the genetic epidemiology of autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 1349–1356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Conti-Ramsden, G., Simkin, Z., & Botting, N. (2006). The prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in adolescents with a history of specific language impairment (SLI). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 47, 621–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de Boo, G. M., & Prins, P. J. (2007). Social incompetence in children with ADHD: Possible moderators and mediators in social-skills training. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 78–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Department of Health. (2012). National health insurance in Taiwan 2011 annual report. p24. http://www.nhi.gov.tw/English/webdata/webdata.aspx?menu=11&menu_id=290&webdata_id=2974&WD_ID=290.
  20. Dunn, M., & Dunn, L. M. (1981). Peabody picture vocabulary test-revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  21. Folio, M. R., & Fewell, R. R. (2000). Peabody developmental motor scales examiner’s manual (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  22. Gadow, K. D., DeVincent, C. J., & Pomeroy, J. (2006). ADHD symptom subtypes in children with pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 271–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gamliel, I., Yirmiya, N., Jaffe, D. H., Manor, O., & Sigman, M. (2009). Developmental trajectories in siblings of children with autism: Cognition and language from 4 months to 7 years. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1131–1144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gamliel, I., Yirmiya, N., & Sigman, M. (2007). The development of young siblings of children with autism from 4 to 54 months. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 171–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gilmour, J., Hill, B., Place, M., & Skuse, D. H. (2004). Social communication deficits in conduct disorder: A clinical and community survey. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 45, 967–978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goldstein, S., & Schwebach, A. J. (2004). The comorbidity of pervasive developmental disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Results of a retrospective chart review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 329–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Henderson, S. E., & Sugden, D. A. (1992). Movement assessment battery for children. London: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  28. Holtmann, M., Bolte, S., & Poustka, F. (2007). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in pervasive developmental disorders: Association with autistic behavior domains and coexisting psychopathology. Psychopathology, 40, 172–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jensen, P. S. (2001). Introduction—ADHD comorbidity and treatment outcomes in the MTA. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 134–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jensen, P. S., Hinshaw, S. P., Kraemer, H. C., Lenora, N., Newcorn, J. H., Abikoff, H. B., et al. (2001). ADHD comorbidity findings from the MTA study: Comparing comorbid subgroups. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 147–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jose, P. E., Huntsinger, C. E., Huntsinger, P. R., & Liaw, F.-R. (2000). Parental values and practices relevant to young children’s social development in Taiwan and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, 677–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lee, D. O., & Ousley, O. Y. (2006). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinic sample of children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 16, 737–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Leyfer, O. T., Tager-Flusberg, H., Dowd, M., Tomblin, J. B., & Folstein, S. E. (2008). Overlap between autism and specific language impairment: Comparison of autism diagnostic interview and autism diagnostic observation schedule scores. Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research, 1, 284–296.Google Scholar
  34. Loucas, T., Charman, T., Pickles, A., Simonoff, E., Chandler, S., Meldrum, D., et al. (2008). Autistic symptomatology and language ability in autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 49, 1184–1192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mulligan, A., Anney, R. J., O’Regan, M., Chen, W., Butler, L., Fitzgerald, M., et al. (2009). Autism symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A familial trait which correlates with conduct, oppositional defiant, language and motor disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 197–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nijmeijer, J. S., Hoekstra, P. J., Minderaa, R. B., Buitelaar, J. K., Altink, M. E., Buschgens, C. J., et al. (2009). PDD symptoms in ADHD, an independent familial trait? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 443–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pine, D. S., Guyer, A. E., Goldwin, M., Towbin, K. A., & Leibenluft, E. (2008). Autism spectrum disorder scale scores in pediatric mood and anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 652–661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pine, E., Luby, J., Abbacchi, A., & Constantino, J. N. (2006). Quantitative assessment of autistic symptomatology in preschoolers. Autism:The International Journal of Research and Practice, 10, 344–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Piven, J., Palmer, P., Jacobi, D., Childress, D., & Arndt, S. (1997a). Broader autism phenotype: Evidence from a family history study of multiple-incidence autism families. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 185–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Piven, J., Palmer, P., Landa, R., Santangelo, S., Jacobi, D., & Childress, D. (1997b). Personality and language characteristics in parents from multiple-incidence autism families. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 74, 398–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Reiersen, A. M., Constantino, J. N., Volk, H. E., & Todd, R. D. (2007). Autistic traits in a population-based ADHD twin sample. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 48, 464–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Robins, D. L., Fein, D., Barton, M. L., & Green, J. A. (2001). The modified checklist for autism in toddlers: An initial study investigating the early detection of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 131–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Santosh, P. J., & Mijovic, A. (2004). Social impairment in hyperkinetic disorder—Relationship to psychopathology and environmental stressors. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13, 141–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Spiker, D., Lotspeich, L. J., Dimiceli, S., Myers, R. M., & Risch, N. (2002). Behavioral phenotypic variation in autism multiplex families: Evidence for a continuous severity gradient. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 114, 129–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Toth, K., Dawson, G., Meltzoff, A. N., Greenson, J., & Fein, D. (2007). Early social, imitation, play, and language abilities of young non-autistic siblings of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 145–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Towbin, K. E., Pradella, A., Gorrindo, T., Pine, D. S., & Leibenluft, E. (2005). Autism spectrum traits in children with mood and anxiety disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 15, 452–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang, J.-E. (1999). The development of abbreviated individual IQ scale. Bulletin Special Education, 17, 1–11.Google Scholar
  48. Wechsker, D. (1967). Wechsler pre-school and primary scale of intelligence: WPPSI manual. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  49. Yoshida, Y., & Uchiyama, T. (2004). The clinical necessity for assessing attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) symptoms in children with high-functioning pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13, 307–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jessica Wang
    • 1
    • 4
  • Li-Ching Lee
    • 2
  • Ying-Sheue Chen
    • 3
  • Ju-Wei Hsu
    • 3
  1. 1.Weill Cornell Medical CollegeNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of EpidemiologyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryTaipei Veterans General HospitalTaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of PediatricsNew-York Presbyterian HospitalNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations