Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder
- 1.2k Downloads
Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene occurred more often in the parents of children with ASD compared to the parents of unaffected children. Parents of children with ASD were more likely to report exposures to asphalt and solvents compared to parents of unaffected children. This study was limited by the small sample size, but results suggest that workplace exposures to some chemicals may be important in the etiology of ASD and deserve further investigation.
KeywordsAutism Autism spectrum disorder Parental exposures Parent Occupation Exposure
The authors would like to thank the families who participated in the CHARGE research project. It is because of their time and commitment that we were able to conduct this research. The authors would also like to thank Lora Delwiche at the University of California, Davis for her help with data management during this project. Grant sponsor: National Institutes of Health, Grant numbers: 1 P01 ES11269, 1 R01 ES015359, Grant sponsor: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through the Science to Achieve Results (STAR) program, Grant numbers: R829388, R833292.
- Allred, M., & Wilbur, S. (2002). Hazardous substance exposures and autism. In C. DeRosa, J. Holler, & M. Mehlman (Eds.), Advances in modern toxicology (pp. 453–473). Princeton, NJ: International Toxicology Books, Inc.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. Text Revision). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- Croen, L. A., Grether, J. K., & Selvin, S. (2002). Descriptive epidemiology of autism in a California population: who is at risk? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(3), 217–224.Google Scholar
- Dietert, R. R., & Dietert, J. M. (2008). Potential for early-life immune insult including developmental immunotoxicity in autism and autism spectrum disorders: Focus on critical windows of immune vulnerability. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews, 11(8), 660–680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Felicetti, T. (1981). Parents of autistic children: Some notes on a chemical connection. Milieu therapy, 1(1), 13–16.Google Scholar
- Gillberg, C., & Coleman, M. (2000). The biology of the autistic syndromes (3rd ed.). London: Mac Keith Press.Google Scholar
- Key, M. M., Henschel, A. F., Butler, J., Ligo, R. N., & Tabershaw, I. R. (Eds.). (1977). Occupational diseases. A guide to their recognition. Washington, DC: DHEW (NIOSH).Google Scholar
- Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H, Jr, Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen’s scales of early learning. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services Inc.Google Scholar
- NIOSH. (2001) Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances (RTECS®). Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/rtecs/RTECSaccess.html. Assessed 20 December 2010.
- Roberts, E. M., English, P. B., Grether, J. K., Windham, G. C., Somberg, L., & Wolff, C. (2007). Maternal residence near agricultural pesticide applications and autism spectrum disorders among children in the California Central Valley. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(10), 1482–1489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). Vineland adaptive behavior scales. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services, Inc.Google Scholar
- Wiedel, L., & Coleman, M. (1976). The autistic and control population of this study. Demographic, historical and attitudinal data. In M. Coleman (Ed.), The autistic syndromes (pp. 11–20). Amsterdam, Holland: North Holland Publishing.Google Scholar