Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 42, Issue 10, pp 2121–2140

The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED): A Multisite Epidemiologic Study of Autism by the Centers for Autism and Developmental Disabilities Research and Epidemiology (CADDRE) Network

  • Diana E. Schendel
  • Carolyn DiGuiseppi
  • Lisa A. Croen
  • M. Daniele Fallin
  • Philip L. Reed
  • Laura A. Schieve
  • Lisa D. Wiggins
  • Julie Daniels
  • Judith Grether
  • Susan E. Levy
  • Lisa Miller
  • Craig Newschaffer
  • Jennifer Pinto-Martin
  • Cordelia Robinson
  • Gayle C. Windham
  • Aimee Alexander
  • Arthur S. Aylsworth
  • Pilar Bernal
  • Joseph D. Bonner
  • Lisa Blaskey
  • Chyrise Bradley
  • Jack Collins
  • Casara J. Ferretti
  • Homayoon Farzadegan
  • Ellen Giarelli
  • Marques Harvey
  • Susan Hepburn
  • Matthew Herr
  • Kristina Kaparich
  • Rebecca Landa
  • Li-Ching Lee
  • Brooke Levenseller
  • Stacey Meyerer
  • Mohammad H. Rahbar
  • Andria Ratchford
  • Ann Reynolds
  • Steven Rosenberg
  • Julie Rusyniak
  • Stuart K. Shapira
  • Karen Smith
  • Margaret Souders
  • Patrick Aaron Thompson
  • Lisa Young
  • Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10803-012-1461-8

Cite this article as:
Schendel, D.E., DiGuiseppi, C., Croen, L.A. et al. J Autism Dev Disord (2012) 42: 2121. doi:10.1007/s10803-012-1461-8

Abstract

The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multisite investigation addressing knowledge gaps in autism phenotype and etiology, aims to: (1) characterize the autism behavioral phenotype and associated developmental, medical, and behavioral conditions and (2) investigate genetic and environmental risks with emphasis on immunologic, hormonal, gastrointestinal, and sociodemographic characteristics. SEED uses a case–control design with population-based ascertainment of children aged 2–5 years with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children in two control groups—one from the general population and one with non-ASD developmental problems. Data from parent-completed questionnaires, interviews, clinical evaluations, biospecimen sampling, and medical record abstraction focus on the prenatal and early postnatal periods. SEED is a valuable resource for testing hypotheses regarding ASD characteristics and causes.

Keywords

Autism Epidemiology Study methods Risk factors Phenotype 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diana E. Schendel
    • 1
  • Carolyn DiGuiseppi
    • 2
  • Lisa A. Croen
    • 3
  • M. Daniele Fallin
    • 4
  • Philip L. Reed
    • 5
  • Laura A. Schieve
    • 1
  • Lisa D. Wiggins
    • 1
  • Julie Daniels
    • 6
  • Judith Grether
    • 7
  • Susan E. Levy
    • 8
  • Lisa Miller
    • 9
  • Craig Newschaffer
    • 10
  • Jennifer Pinto-Martin
    • 11
  • Cordelia Robinson
    • 12
  • Gayle C. Windham
    • 7
  • Aimee Alexander
    • 1
  • Arthur S. Aylsworth
    • 13
  • Pilar Bernal
    • 14
  • Joseph D. Bonner
    • 5
  • Lisa Blaskey
    • 8
  • Chyrise Bradley
    • 15
  • Jack Collins
    • 3
  • Casara J. Ferretti
    • 8
  • Homayoon Farzadegan
    • 4
  • Ellen Giarelli
    • 16
  • Marques Harvey
    • 1
  • Susan Hepburn
    • 12
  • Matthew Herr
    • 15
  • Kristina Kaparich
    • 12
  • Rebecca Landa
    • 17
  • Li-Ching Lee
    • 4
  • Brooke Levenseller
    • 16
  • Stacey Meyerer
    • 4
  • Mohammad H. Rahbar
    • 18
  • Andria Ratchford
    • 9
  • Ann Reynolds
    • 12
  • Steven Rosenberg
    • 12
  • Julie Rusyniak
    • 17
  • Stuart K. Shapira
    • 1
  • Karen Smith
    • 7
  • Margaret Souders
    • 16
  • Patrick Aaron Thompson
    • 5
  • Lisa Young
    • 16
  • Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp
    • 1
  1. 1.National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental DisabilitiesCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public HealthUniversity of Colorado DenverDenverUSA
  3. 3.Division of ResearchKaiser Permanente Northern CaliforniaOaklandUSA
  4. 4.Department of EpidemiologyJohns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.Clinical and Translational Sciences InstituteMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  6. 6.Departments of Epidemiology and Maternal and Child Health, Gillings School of Global Public HealthUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  7. 7.Division of Environmental and Occupational Disease ControlCA Department of Public HealthOaklandUSA
  8. 8.Center for AutismChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  9. 9.Colorado Department of Public Health and EnvironmentDenverUSA
  10. 10.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsDrexel University School of Public HealthPhiladelphiaUSA
  11. 11.University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing and School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  12. 12.University of Colorado Denver, School of MedicineDenverUSA
  13. 13.Departments of Pediatrics and Genetics, School of MedicineUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  14. 14.Autism Spectrum Disorders Center, San Jose Medical CenterKaiser Permanente Northern CaliforniaOaklandUSA
  15. 15.Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public HealthUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  16. 16.University of Pennsylvania School of NursingPhiladelphiaUSA
  17. 17.Kennedy Krieger Institute and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  18. 18.Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental SciencesUniversity of Texas School of Public Health at HoustonHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations