Differences in Autism Symptoms Between Minority and Non-Minority Toddlers
- 1.8k Downloads
Little is known about whether early symptom presentation differs in toddlers with ASD from ethnic minority versus non-minority backgrounds. Within a treatment study for toddlers with ASD, we compared 19 minority to 65 Caucasian children and their parents on variables obtained from the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Caregiver Questionnaire. The majority of parents were from the upper classes irrespective of ethnic membership. Minority children had lower scores in language, communication, and gross motor than non-minority children. Findings indicate that subtle communication delays may be undetected or presumed unremarkable by parents of minority toddlers, and that more significant delays are needed to prompt the search for intervention services.
KeywordsAutism spectrum disorder Toddlers Early symptoms Minority
Autism spectrum disorders
- DSM IV-TR
Diagnostic and statistical manual IV, text revision
- CSBS DP
Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule
We would like to thank the toddlers and families who participated in this study. We also thank the research staff at the Kennedy Krieger REACH laboratory in the Center for Autism and Related Disorders who contributed to this project through scheduling, data organization, data collection, and data processing. Rebecca Landa, principal investigator, thanks the National Institute of Mental Health for support of her research through grant #154MH066417, the Maternal and Child Health Research Program—Maternal and Child Health Bureau (Combatting Autism Act), Health Resources and Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services the Health Resources and Services Administration grant R40 MC 15594, and the Krieger Foundation for their funding.
- American Psychological Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders; volume IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2006). Mental health in the United States: Parental report of diagnosed autism in children aged 4–17 years—United States, 2003–2004. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2010). Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs): What should you know? Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/.
- Durkin, M. S., Maenner, M. J., Meaney, F. J., Levy, S. E., DiGuiseppi, S., Nicholas, J. S., et al. (2010). Socioeconomic inequality in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder: Evidence from a U.S. cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE, 5(7), e11551. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gradin, C. (2008). Poverty among minorities in the United States: Explaining the racial poverty gap for Blacks and Latinos, Working Papers 96, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality. Retrieved from http://www.ecineq.org/milano/WP/ECINEQ2008-96.pdf.
- Hilton, C. L., Fitzgerald, R. T., Jackson, K. M., Maxim, R. A., Bosworth, C. C., Shattuck, P. T., et al. (2009). Brief report: Under-representation of African Americans in autism genetic research: A rationale for inclusion of subjects representing diverse family structures. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 633–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. Working Paper, Department of Sociology, Yale University, New Haven.Google Scholar
- Liptak, G. S., Benzoni, L. B., Mruzek, D. W., Nolan, K. W., Thingvoll, M. A., Wade, C. M., et al. (2008). Disparities in diagnosis and utilization of health services for children with autism: Data from the national survey of children’s health. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 29, 152–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P., & Risi, S. (1999). Autism diagnostic observation schedule. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen scales of early learning (AGS ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
- Wetherby, A., & Prizant, B. (2002). CSBS DP manual: Communication and symbolic behavior scales developmental profile. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
- Zhang, J., Wheeler, J. J., & Richey, D. (2006). Cultural validity in assessment instruments for children with autism from a Chinese cultural perspective. International Journal of Special Education, 21, 109–114.Google Scholar