Advertisement

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 42, Issue 6, pp 1037–1044 | Cite as

Predictors and Moderators of Parent Training Efficacy in a Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

  • Cristan Farmer
  • Luc LecavalierEmail author
  • Sunkyung Yu
  • L. Eugene Arnold
  • Christopher J. McDougle
  • Lawrence Scahill
  • Benjamin Handen
  • Cynthia R. Johnson
  • Kimberly A. Stigler
  • Karen Bearss
  • Naomi B. Swiezy
  • Michael G. Aman
Original Paper

Abstract

The Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology—Autism Network reported additional benefit when adding parent training (PT) to antipsychotic medication in children with autism spectrum disorders and serious behavior problems. The intent-to-treat analyses were rerun with putative predictors and moderators. The Home Situations Questionnaire (HSQ) and the Hyperactivity/Noncompliance subscale of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist were used as outcome measures. Candidate predictors and moderators included 21 demographics and baseline measures of behavior. Higher baseline HSQ scores predicted greater improvement on the HSQ regardless of treatment assignment, but no other predictors of outcome were observed. None of the variables measured in this study moderated response to PT. Antipsychotic medication plus PT appears to be equally effective for children with a wide range of demographic and behavioral characteristics.

Keywords

Parent training Pervasive developmental disorder Autism Risperidone Predictor Moderator 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health by the following RUPP grants: Ohio State University, U10MH66768; Indiana University, U10MH66766; and Yale University, U10MH66764. Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development provided active risperidone for the study.

References

  1. Abidin, R. (1995). Parent stress index (3rd ed.). Lutz, Florida: Psychological Assessment Resource.Google Scholar
  2. Aman, M., McDougle, C., Scahill, L., Handen, B., Arnold, L. E., et al. (2009). Medication and parent training in children with pervasive developmental disorders and serious behavior problems: Results from a randomized clinical trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 1143–1154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aman, M., Singh, N., Stewart, A., & Field, C. (1985). The aberrant behavior checklist: A behavior rating scale for the assessment of treatment effects. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 89, 485–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnold, L., Farmer, C., Kraemer, H., Davies, M., Witwer, A., et al. (2010). Moderators, mediators, and other predictors of risperidone response in children with autistic disorder and irritability. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 20(2), 83–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barkley, R., Edwards, G., & Robin, A. (1999). Defiant teens: A clinician’s manual for assessment and intervention. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  6. Baron, R., & Kenny, D. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chowdhury, M., Aman, M., Scahill, L., Swiezy, N., Arnold, L. E., et al. (2010). The home situations questionnaire-PDD version: Factor structure and psychometric properties. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54, 281–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gadow, K., & Sprafkin, J. (2002). Child symptom inventory-4 screening and norms manual. Stony Brook, NY: Checkmate Plus.Google Scholar
  9. Hayes, A., & Matthes, J. (2009). Computational procedures for probing interactions in OLS and logistic regression: SPSS and SAS implementations. Behavioral Research Methods, 41, 924–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Johnson, C. J., Handen, B. L., Butter, E. M., Wagner, A., Mulick, J. A., et al. (2007). Development of a parent training program for children with pervasive developmental disorders. Behavioral Interventions, 22, 201–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kazdin, A., & Weisz, J. (1998). Identifying and developing empirically supported child and adolescent treatments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 19–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kraemer, H., & Blasey, C. (2004). Centring in regression analyses: A strategy to prevent errors in statistical inference. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatry Research, 13, 141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kraemer, H., Kiernan, M., Essex, M., & Kupfer, D. (2008). How and why criteria defining moderators and mediators differ between the Baron & Kenny and MacArthur approaches. Health Psychology, 27, S101–S108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. MTA Cooperative Group. (1999). Moderators and mediators of treatment response for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 1088–1096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen scales of early learning. Circle Pines: AGS Publishing.Google Scholar
  16. Owens, E. B., Hinshaw, S. P., Kraemer, H. C., Arnold, L. E., Abikoff, H. B., Cantwell, D. P., et al. (2003). What treatment for whom for ADHD: Moderators of treatment response in the MTA. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(3), 540–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network. (2002). Risperidone in children with autism and serious behavioral problems. The New England Journal of Medicine, 347(5), 314–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network. (2007). Parent training for children with pervasive developmental disorders: A multi-site feasibility trial. Behavioral Interventions, 22, 179–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Roid, G. H. (2003). Stanford-Binet intelligence scales (5th ed.). Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside Publishing.Google Scholar
  20. Roid, G., & Miller, L. (1998). Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised. Wood Dale, IL: Stoelting.Google Scholar
  21. Scahill, L., Aman, M., McDougle, C., Arnold, L. E., McCracken, J., et al. (2009). Trial design challenges when combining medication and parent training in children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 720–729.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Scahill, L., McDougle, C., Williams, S., Dimitriopoulos, A., Aman, M., et al. (2006). The children’s Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale modified for pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 1114–1123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sparrow, S., Carrey, N., Wiggins, D., Millin, R., & Hosendocus, S. (1984). Vineland adaptive behavior scales. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristan Farmer
    • 1
  • Luc Lecavalier
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sunkyung Yu
    • 2
    • 5
  • L. Eugene Arnold
    • 1
  • Christopher J. McDougle
    • 3
  • Lawrence Scahill
    • 2
  • Benjamin Handen
    • 4
  • Cynthia R. Johnson
    • 4
  • Kimberly A. Stigler
    • 3
  • Karen Bearss
    • 2
  • Naomi B. Swiezy
    • 3
  • Michael G. Aman
    • 1
  1. 1.Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Yale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Indiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA
  4. 4.University of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  5. 5.Division of Pediatrics CardiologyUniversity of Michigan Medical SchoolAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations