Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 41, Issue 10, pp 1362–1372 | Cite as

Birth Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in the San Francisco Bay Area by Demographic and Ascertainment Source Characteristics

  • Gayle C. Windham
  • Meredith C. Anderson
  • Lisa A. Croen
  • Karen S. Smith
  • John Collins
  • Judith K. Grether
Original Paper

Abstract

Using standardized methods for multi-source surveillance, we calculated the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) among children born in a racially diverse region in 1994 or 1996 as 4.7/1000 live births. Children with ASD before age 9 were identified through chart abstraction at health-related sources; three-quarters were being served by the state-wide Department of Developmental Services. In adjusted models, we found a male:female ratio of 6:1, a doubling of ASD prevalence among children of older mothers (40+), and lower prevalence with lower paternal education. Children of Black or Hispanic mothers had lower prevalence than those of White, non-Hispanic mothers, but these differences were attenuated after adjustment. Prevalence in children of Asian mothers was similar to Whites. Potential under-counting is discussed.

Keywords

Autism ASD Prevalence Surveillance Demographics 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gayle C. Windham
    • 1
  • Meredith C. Anderson
    • 2
  • Lisa A. Croen
    • 3
  • Karen S. Smith
    • 2
  • John Collins
    • 2
  • Judith K. Grether
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Department of Public HealthRichmondUSA
  2. 2.Impact Assessment, Inc.La JollaUSA
  3. 3.Northern California Kaiser Permanente Division of ResearchOaklandUSA

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