Advertisement

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 41, Issue 9, pp 1240–1255 | Cite as

Emotion Perception in Music in High-Functioning Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders

  • Eve-Marie QuintinEmail author
  • Anjali Bhatara
  • Hélène Poissant
  • Eric Fombonne
  • Daniel J. Levitin
Original Paper

Abstract

Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) succeed at a range of musical tasks. The ability to recognize musical emotion as belonging to one of four categories (happy, sad, scared or peaceful) was assessed in high-functioning adolescents with ASD (N = 26) and adolescents with typical development (TD, N = 26) with comparable performance IQ, auditory working memory, and musical training and experience. When verbal IQ was controlled for, there was no significant effect of diagnostic group. Adolescents with ASD rated the intensity of the emotions similarly to adolescents with TD and reported greater confidence in their responses when they had correctly (vs. incorrectly) recognized the emotions. These findings are reviewed within the context of the amygdala theory of autism.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorders Emotion Music Adolescence 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This paper is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the doctoral degree (Ph.D.) in Psychology at Université du Québec à Montréal by the first author. The research was supported in part by doctoral grants to EMQ by FQRSC and the Canadian Autism Research Training Program, and by research grants to DJL from NAAR/Autism Speaks (#1066), NSERC (#221875-10), and the John and Ethelene Gareau Foundation. We would like to thank the participants and their families; the English Montreal Schoolboard, Summit School, Montreal Children’s Hospital; Pamela Heaton for guidance and advice; Annie Coulter, Many Black, Shirley Elliott, and Bianca Levy for help with testing and recruiting participants; Bennett Smith and Karle-Philip Zamor for technical assistance.

References

  1. Adolphs, R., Baron-Cohen, S., & Tranel, D. (2002). Impaired recognition of social emotions following amygdala damage. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(8), 1264–1274. doi: 10.1162/089892902760807258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adolphs, R., Sears, L., & Piven, J. (2001). Abnormal processing of social information from faces in autism. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13(2), 232–240. doi: 10.1162/089892901564289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. (1994). Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the amygdala. Nature, 372, 669–672. doi: 10.1038/372669a0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. (1995). Fear and the human amygdala. Journal of Neuroscience, 15(9), 5879–5891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen, R., Hill, E., & Heaton, P. (2009). ‘Hath charms to soothe…’: An exploratory study of how high-functioning adults with ASD experience music. Autism, 13(1), 21–41. doi: 10.1177/1362361307098511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amaral, D. G., Baumann, M. D., & Schuman, C. M. (2003). The amgdala and autism: implications from non-human primate studies. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 2(5), 295–302. doi: 10.1034/j.1601-183X.2003.00043.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Applebaum, E., Egel, A. L., Koegel, R. L., & Imhoff, B. (1979). Measuring musical abilities of autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 279–285. doi: 10.1007/BF01531742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baron-Cohen, S., Ring, H. A., Bullmore, E. T., Wheelwright, S., Ashwin, C., & Williams, S. C. R. (2000). The amygdala theory of autism. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24(3), 355–364. doi: 10.1016/S0149-7634(00)00011-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baron-Cohen, S., Ring, H., Wheelwright, S., Bullmore, E., Brammer, M., Simmons, A., et al. (1999). Social intelligence in the normal and autistic brain: an fMRI study. European Journal of Neuroscience, 11, 1891–1898. doi: 10.1046/j.1460-9568.1999.00621.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baron-Cohen, S., Spitz, A., & Cross, P. (1993). Do children with autism recognise surprise? A research note. Cognition and Emotion, 7(6), 507–516. doi: 10.1080/02699939308409202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., & Joliffe, T. (1997). Is there a “Language of the eyes”? Evidence from normal adults and adults with autism or Asperger syndrome. Visual Cognition, 4(3), 311–331. doi: 10.1080/713756761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Belmonte, M. K., Cook, E. H., Anderson, G. M., Rubenstein, J. L. R., Greenough, W. T., Beckel-Mithchener, A., et al. (2004). Autism as a disorder of neural information processing: Directions for research and targets for therapy. Molecular Psychiatry, 9, 646–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhatara, A. K., Quintin, E. M., Heaton, P., Fombonne, E., & Levitin, D. J. (2009). The effect of music on social attribution in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Child Neuropsychology, 15, 375–396. doi: 10.1080/09297040802603653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blair, R. J. R. (1999). Psychophysiological responsiveness to the distress of others in children with autism. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 477–485. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00154-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bonnel, A., Mottron, L., Peretz, I., Trudel, M., Gallun, E., & Bonnel, A.-M. (2003). Enhanced pitch sensitivity in individuals with autism: A signal detection analysis. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15(2), 226–235. doi: 10.1162/089892903321208169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buitelaar, J. K., van der Wees, M., Swaab-Barneveld, H., & van der Gaag, R. J. (1999). Verbal memory and performance IQ predict theory of mind and emotion recognition ability in children with autistic spectrum disorders and in psychiatric control children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(6), 869–881. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burack, J. A., Iarocci, G., Flanagan, T. D., & Bowler, D. M. (2004). On mosaics and melting pots: Conceptual considerations of comparison and matching strategies. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(1), 65–73. doi: 10.1023/B:JADD.0000018076.90715.00.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Caclin, A., McAdams, S., Smith, B. K., & Winsberg, S. (2005). Acoustic correlates of timbre space dimensions: A confirmatory study using synthetic tones. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 118(1), 471–482. doi: 10.1121/1.1929229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Castelli, F. (2005). Understanding emotions from standardized facial expressions in autism and normal development. Autism, 9(4), 428–449. doi: 10.1177/1362361305056082.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Celani, G., Battacchi, M. W., & Arcidiacono, L. (1999). The understanding of the emotional meaning of facial expressions in people with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29(1), 57–66. doi: 10.1023/A:1025970600181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 213–220. doi: 10.1177/001316446002000104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155–159. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Constantino, J. N., Davis, S., Todd, R., Schindler, M., Gross, M., Brophy, S., et al. (2003). Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: Comparison of the Social Responsiveness Scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 427–433. doi: 10.1023/A:1025014929212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cuddy, L. L., Balkwill, L.-L., Peretz, I., & Holden, R. R. (2005). Musical difficulties are rare: A study of “tone deafness” among university students. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1060, 311–324. doi: 10.1196/annals.1360.026.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dalla Bella, S., Peretz, I., Rousseau, L., & Gosselin, N. (2001). A developmental study of the affective value of tempo and mode in music. Cognition, 80, B1–10. doi: 10.1016/S0010-0277(00)00136-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dawson, G., Webb, S. J., Carver, L., Panagiotides, H., & McPartland, J. (2004). Young children with autism show atypical brain responses to fearful versus neutral facial expressions of emotion. Developmental Science, 7(3), 340–359. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2004.00352.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gaigg, S. B., & Bowler, D. M. (2007). Differential fear conditioning in Asperger’s syndrome: Implications for an amygdala theory of autism. Neuropsychologia, 45, 2125–2134. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.01.012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Golan, O., Baron-Cohen, S., Hill, J. J., & Rutherford, M. (2007). The ‘reading the mind in the voice’ test-revised: A study of complex emotion recognition in adults with and without autism spectrum conditions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(6), 1096–1106. doi: 10.1007/s10803-006-0252-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gold, C., Wigram, T., & Elefant, C. (2006). Music therapy for autism spectrum disorders. Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews, Issue, 2, 1–8.Google Scholar
  30. Gosselin, N., Peretz, I., Johensen, E., & Adoplhs, R. (2007). Amygdala damage impairs emotion recognition from music. Neuropsychologia, 45, 236–244. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.07.012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gosselin, N., Peretz, I., Noulhiane, M., Hasboun, D., Beckett, C., Baulac, M., et al. (2005). Impaired recognition of scary music following unilateral temporal lobe excision. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 128(3), 628–640.Google Scholar
  32. Gross, T. F. (2004). The perception of four basic emotions in human and nonhuman faces by children with autism and other developmental disabilities. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(5), 469–480. doi: 10.1023/B:JACP.0000037777.17698.01.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Happé, F. (1995). The role of age and verbal ability in the theory of mind task performance of subjects with autism. Child Development, 66, 843–855. doi: 10.2307/1131954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Happé, F. (1999). Autism: Cognitive deficit or cognitive style? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3(6), 216–222. doi: 10.1016/S1364-6613(99)01318-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Happé, F., & Frith, U. (1994). Autism: Beyond “theory of mind”. Cognition, 50, 115–132. doi: 10.1016/0010-0277(94)90024-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Heaton, P. (2003). Pitch memory, labelling and disembedding in autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(4), 543–551. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Heaton, P., Allen, R., Williams, K., Cummins, O., & Happé, F. (2008a). Do social and cognitive deficits curtail musical understanding? Evidence from autism and Down syndrome. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 26, 171–182. doi: 10.1348/026151007X206776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Heaton, P., Hermelin, B., & Pring, L. (1998). Autism and pitch processing: A precursor for savant musical ability. Music Perception, 15(3), 291–305.Google Scholar
  39. Heaton, P., Hermelin, B., & Pring, L. (1999a). Can children with autistic spectrum disorders perceive affect in music? An experimental investigation. Psychological Medicine, 29, 1405–1410. doi: 10.1017/S0033291799001221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Heaton, P., Pring, L., & Hermelin, B. (1999b). A pseudo-savant: A case of exceptional musical splinter skills. Neurocase, 5(6), 503–509. doi: 10.1080/13554799908402745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Heaton, P., Williams, K., Cummins, O., & Happé, F. (2008b). Autism and pitch processing splinter skills: A group and subgroup analysis. Autism, 12(2), 203–219. doi: 10.1177/1362361307085270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hess, U., Adams, R. B., & Kleck, R. E. (2004). Facial appearance, gender, and emotion expression. Emotion, 4(2), 378–388. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.4.4.378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hess, U., Adams, R. B., & Kleck, R. E. (2005). Who may frown and who should smile? Dominance, affiliation, and the display of happiness and anger. Cognition and Emotion, 19(4), 515–536. doi: 10.1080/02699930441000364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hill, E. (2004). Evaluating the theory of executive dysfunction in autism. Developmental Review, 24, 189–233. doi: 10.1016/j.dr.2004.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hill, E., Berthoz, S., & Frith, U. (2004). Brief report: Cognitive processing of own emotions in individuals with autistic spectrum disorder and in their relatives. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(2), 229–235. doi: 10.1023/B:JADD.0000022613.41399.14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hobson, R. P. (1986). The autistic child’s appraisal of expressions of emotion. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27(3), 321–342. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1986.tb01836.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hobson, P. (2005). Autism and emotion. In F. R. Volmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (Vol. 1, pp. 406–422). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  48. Howard, M. A., Cowell, P. E., Boucher, J., Broks, P., Mayes, A., Farrant, A., et al. (2000). Convergent neuroanatomical and behavioural evidence of an amygdala hypothesis of autism. NeuroReport, 11(13), 2931–2935. doi: 10.1097/00001756-200009110-00020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Juslin, P. N., & Sloboda, J. A. (2001). Communicating emotion in music performance: A review and theoretical framework. In P. N. Juslin (Ed.), Music and emotion: Theory and research (pp. 307–331). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Just, M. A., Cherkassky, V. L., Keller, T. A., & Minshew, N. J. (2004). Cortical activation and synchronization during sentence comprehension in high-functioning autism: Evidence of underconnectivity. Brain, 127, 1811–1821. doi: 10.1093/brain/awh199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217–250.Google Scholar
  52. Kaplan, R. S., & Steele, A. L. (2005). An analysis of music therapy program and outcomes for clients with diagnoses on the autism spectrum. Journal of Music Therapy, 42(1), 2–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kastner, M. P., & Crowder, R. G. (1990). Perception of the major/minor distinction: IV. Emotional connotations in young children. Music Perception, 8(2), 189–202.Google Scholar
  54. Katagiri, J. (2009). The effect of background music and song texts on the emotional understanding of children with autism. Journal of Music Therapy, 46(1), 15–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kim, J., Wigram, T., & Gold, C. (2008). The effects of improvisation music therapy on joint attention behaviors in autistic children: A randomized controlled study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(9), 1758–1766. doi: 10.1007/s10803-008-0566-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Koelsch, S., Fritz, T., Carmon, D. Y.v., Müller, K., & Friederici, A. D. (2006). Investigating emotion with music. Human Brain Mapping, 27, 239–250. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Levitin, D. J., Cole, K., Chiles, M., Lai, Z., Lincoln, A., & Bellugi, U. (2004). Characterizing the musical phenotype in individuals with Williams syndrome. Child Neuropsychology, 10(4), 223–247. doi: 10.1080/09297040490909288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Loveland, K. A., Tunali-Kotoski, B., Chen, R., Brelsford, K. A., Ortegon, J., & Pearson, D. A. (1995). Intermodal perception of affect in persons with autism or Down syndrome. Development and Psychopathology, 7(3), 409–418. doi: 10.1017/S095457940000660X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Loveland, K. A., Tunali-Kotoski, B., Chen, Y. R., Ortegon, J., Pearson, D. A., Brelsford, K. A., et al. (1997). Emotion recognition in autism: Verbal and nonverbal information. Development and Psychopathology, 9(3), 579–593. doi: 10.1017/S0954579497001351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Marozeau, J., de Cheveigné, A., McAdams, S., & Winsberg, S. (2003). The dependency of timbre on fundamental frequency. Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, 114(5), 2946–2957. doi: 10.1121/1.1618239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Meyer, L. B. (1956). Emotion and meaning in music. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  62. Mottron, L., Peretz, I., & Ménard, E. (2000). Local and global processing of music in high-functioning persons with autism: Beyond central coherence? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41(8), 1057–1065. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00693.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Neumann, D., Spezio, M. L., Piven, J., & Adolphs, R. (2006). Looking you in the mouth: Abnormal gaze in autism resulting from impaired top-down modulation of visual attention. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 1(3), 194–202. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsl030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. O’Connor, K. (2007). Brief report: Impaired identification of discrepancies between expressive faces and voices in adults with Asperger’s syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 2008–2013. doi: 10.1007/s10803-006-0345-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ozonoff, S., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1990). Are there emotion perception deficits in young autistic children? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31(3), 343–361. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1990.tb01574.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Patterson, R. D., Uppenkamp, S., Johnsrude, I. S., & Griffiths, T. D. (2002). The processing of temporal pitch and melody information in auditory cortex. Neuron, 36, 767–776. doi: 10.1016/S0896-6273(02)01060-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pelphrey, K. A., Sasson, N. J., Reznick, J. S., Paul, G., Goldman, B. D., & Piven, J. (2002). Visual scanning of faces in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(4), 249–261. doi: 10.1023/A:1016374617369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rapport, L. J., Friedman, S. L., Tzelepis, A., & Van Voorhis, A. (2002). Experienced emotion and affect recognition in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychology, 16(1), 102–110. doi: 10.1037/0894-4105.16.1.102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rimland, B. (1964). Infantile autism. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  70. Rutherford, M. D., Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2002). Reading the mind in the voice: A study with normal adults and adults with Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(3), 189–194. doi: 10.1023/A:1015497629971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). SCQ: Social Communication Questionnaire. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  72. Schultz, R. T., Gauthier, I., Klin, A., Fulbright, R. K., Anderson, A. W., Volkmar, F., et al. (2000). Abnormal ventral temporal cortical activity during face discrimination among individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57(4), 331–340. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.57.4.331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Scott, S. K., Young, A. W., Calder, A. J., Hellawell, D. J., Aggleton, J. P., & Johnson, M. (1997). Impaired auditory recognition of fear and anger following bilateral amygdala lesions. Nature, 385(6613), 254–257. doi: 10.1038/385254a0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shrout, P. E., & Fleiss, J. L. (1979). Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 86(2), 420–428. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.86.2.420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Smith, B. (1995). Psiexp: An environment for psychoacoustic experimentation using the IRCAM musical workstation. Paper presented at the Society for Music Perception and Cognition Conference, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  76. Spezio, M. L., Adolphs, R., Hurley, R. S. E., & Piven, J. (2007). Analysis of face gaze in autism using “Bubbles”. Neuropsychologia, 45(1), 144–151. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.04.027.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Teunisse, J.-P., & de Gelder, B. (2001). Impaired categorical perception of facial expressions in high-functioning adolescents with autism. Child Neuropsychology, 7(1), 1–14. doi: 10.1076/chin.7.1.1.3150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Tranel, D., Gullickson, G., Koch, M., & Adolphs, R. (2006). Altered experience of emotion following bilateral amygdala damage. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 11(3), 219–232. doi: 10.1080/13546800444000281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wechsler, D. (1999). Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment, Inc.Google Scholar
  80. Wechsler, D. (2003). Wechsler scale of intelligence for children (4th Canadian ed.). Toronto, ON: Harcourt Assessment, Inc.Google Scholar
  81. Whipple, J. (2004). Music in intervention for children and adolescents with autism: A meta-analysis. Journal of Music Therapy, 41(2), 90–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Ziv, N., & Goshen, M. (2006). The effect of ‘sad’ and ‘happy’ background music on the interpretation of a story in 5 to 6-year-old children. British Journal of Music Education, 23(3), 303–314. doi: 10.1017/S0265051706007078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eve-Marie Quintin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anjali Bhatara
    • 2
    • 5
  • Hélène Poissant
    • 3
  • Eric Fombonne
    • 4
  • Daniel J. Levitin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversité du Québec à MontréalMontréalCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyMcGill UniversityMontréalCanada
  3. 3.Department of Education and PedagogyUniversité du Québec à MontréalMontréalCanada
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryMontreal Children’s Hospital and McGill University Health CentreMontréalCanada
  5. 5.Laboratoire Psychologie de la PerceptionUniversité Paris DescartesParisFrance

Personalised recommendations