Maternal Infection Requiring Hospitalization During Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorders
- 3.8k Downloads
Exposure to prenatal infection has been suggested to cause deficiencies in fetal neurodevelopment. In this study we included all children born in Denmark from 1980, through 2005. Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and maternal infection were obtained through nationwide registers. Data was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. No association was found between any maternal infection and diagnosis of ASDs in the child when looking at the total period of pregnancy: adjusted hazard ratio = 1.14 (CI: 0.96–1.34). However, admission to hospital due to maternal viral infection in the first trimester and maternal bacterial infection in the second trimester were found to be associated with diagnosis of ASDs in the offspring, adjusted hazard ratio = 2.98 (CI: 1.29–7.15) and adjusted hazard ratio = 1.42 (CI: 1.08–1.87), respectively. Our results support prior hypotheses concerning early prenatal viral infection increasing the risk of ASDs.
KeywordsAutism spectrum disorder Autism Infection Influenza Prenatal infection Maternal infection
Funding was provided by the Aarhus University Research Foundation, the Aase and Ejnar Danielsens Foundation, the Augustinus Foundation, and the Familien Hede Nielsens Foundation. The funding sources did not participate in any part of the performance of the study. The authors thank the Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby for their assistance during the validation process.
The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
- Autism Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. (2009). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly report (MMWR), 58, 1–20.Google Scholar
- Collier, S. A., Rasmussen, S. A., Feldkamp, M. L., & Honein, M. A. (2009). Prevalence of self-reported infection during pregnancy among control mothers in the national birth defects prevention study. Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 85, 193–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Djeu, J. Y., Matsushima, K., Oppenheim, J. J., Shiotsuki, K., & Blanchard, D. K. (1990). Functional activation of human neutrophils by recombinant monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor/IL-8. Journal of Immunology, 144, 2205–2210.Google Scholar
- Lauritsen, M. B., Jorgensen, M., Madsen, K. M., Lemcke, S., Toft, S., Grove, J., et al. (2010). Validity of childhood autism in the Danish psychiatric central register: Findings from a cohort sample born 1990–1999. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 139–148.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nahmias, A. J., Nahmias, S. B., & Danielsson, D. (2006). The possible role of transplacentally-acquired antibodies to infectious agents, with molecular mimicry to nervous system sialic acid epitopes, as causes of neuromental disorders: Prevention and vaccine implications. Clinical & Developmental Immunology, 13, 167–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization. (1965). International classification of diseases, Revision 8.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. (1993). International classification of diseases, 10th revision.Google Scholar