Advertisement

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 188–199 | Cite as

BASC-2 PRS Profiles for Students with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

  • Martin A. Volker
  • Christopher Lopata
  • Audrey M. Smerbeck
  • Valerie A. Knoll
  • Marcus L. Thomeer
  • Jennifer A. Toomey
  • Jonathan D. Rodgers
Original Paper

Abstract

BASC-2 PRS profiles of 62 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) were compared with those of 62 typically-developing children matched by age, gender, and ethnicity. Results indicated that, except for the Somatization, Conduct Problems, and Aggression scales, significant differences were found between the HFASD and typically-developing groups on all PRS scores. Mean HFASD scores were in the clinically significant range on the Behavioral Symptoms Index, Atypicality, Withdrawal, and Developmental Social Disorders scales. At-risk range HFASD means were obtained on the Adaptive Skills composite, all adaptive scales, remaining content scales (except Bullying), and Hyperactivity, Attention Problems, and Depression clinical scales. Screening indices suggested that the Developmental Social Disorders scale was highly effective in differentiating between the two groups.

Keywords

BASC Autism spectrum disorders High-functioning autism Asperger’s disorder Behavior ratings Adaptive skills 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. (text revision).Google Scholar
  2. Attwood, T. (2004). Cognitive behavior therapy for children and adults with Asperger’s syndrome. Behaviour Change, 21(3), 147–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnhill, G. P., Hagiwara, T., Myles, B. S., Simpson, R. L., Brick, M. L., & Griswold, D. E. (2000). Parent, teacher, and self-report of problem and adaptive behaviors in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Diagnostique, 25(2), 147–167.Google Scholar
  4. Bellini, S. (2004). Social skill deficits and anxiety in high-functioning adolescents with Autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disorders, 19(2), 78–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carothers, D. E., & Taylor, R. L. (2004). Social cognitive processing in elementary school children with Asperger syndrome. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 39, 177–187.Google Scholar
  6. Carrington, S., Templeton, E., & Papinczak, T. (2003). Adolescents with Asperger syndrome and perceptions of friendships. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 18, 211–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  8. de Bruin, E. I., Ferdinand, R. F., Meester, S., de Nijs, P. F. A., & Verheij, F. (2007). High rates of psychiatric co-morbidity in PDD-NOS. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 877–886.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Fenton, G., D’Ardia, C., Valente, D., del Vecchio, I., Fabrizi, A., & Bernabei, P. (2003). Vineland adaptive behavior profiles in children with autism and moderate to severe developmental delay. Autism, 7(3), 269–287.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Gadow, K. D., DeVincent, C. J., & Pomeroy, J. (2006). ADHD symptom subtypes in children with pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(2), 271–283.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gadow, K. D., DeVincent, C. J., Pomeroy, J., & Azizian, A. (2005). Comparison of DSM-IV symptoms in elementary school-age children with PDD versus clinic and community samples. Autism, 9(4), 392–415.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ghaziuddin, M. (2002). Asperger syndrome: Associated psychiatric and medical conditions. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(3), 138–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ghaziuddin, M., Ghaziuddin, N., & Greden, J. (2002). Depression in persons with Autism: Implications for research and clinical care. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(4), 299–306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Ghaziuddin, M., Weidmer-Mikhail, E., & Ghaziuddin, N. (1998). Comorbidity of Asperger syndrome: A preliminary report. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 42(4), 279–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Gillberg, C. (2002). A guide to Asperger syndrome. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gillott, A., Furniss, F., & Walter, A. (2001). Anxiety in high-functioning children with autism. Autism, 5(3), 277–286.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Green, J., Gilchrist, A., Burton, D., & Cox, A. (2000). Social and psychiatric functioning in adolescents with Asperger syndrome compared with conduct disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(4), 279–293.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kamphaus, R. W., Petoskey, M. D., & Rowe, E. W. (2000). Current trends in psychological testing of children. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31(2), 155–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim, J. A., Szatmari, P., Bryson, S. E., Streiner, D. L., & Wilson, F. J. (2000). The prevalence of anxiety and mood problems among children with autism and Asperger syndrome. Autism, 4(2), 117–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Klin, A., McPartland, J., & Volkmar, F. R. (2005a). Asperger syndrome. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders, Vol. 1 (3rd ed., pp. 88–125). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  21. Klin, A., Saulnier, C., Tsatsanis, K., & Volkmar, F. R. (2005b). Clinical evaluation in autism spectrum disorders: Psychological assessment within a transdisciplinary framework. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders: Vol. 2. Assessment, interventions, and policy (3rd ed., pp. 772–798). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  22. Klin, A., Sparrow, S. S., Marans, W. D., Carter, A., & Volkmar, F. R. (2000). Assessment issues in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome. In A. Klin, F. R. Volkmar, & S. S. Sparrow (Eds.), Asperger syndrome (pp. 309–339). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  23. Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. R. (2000). Treatment and intervention guidelines for individuals with Aspergers syndrome. In A. Klin, F. R. Volkmar, & S. S. Sparrow (Eds.), Asperger syndrome (pp. 340–366). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  24. Lainhart, J. E. (1999). Psychiatric problems in individuals with autism, their parents and siblings. International Review of Psychiatry, 11, 278–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Landa, R. (2000). Social language use in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. In A. Klin, F. R. Volkmar, & S. S. Sparrow (Eds.), Asperger syndrome (pp. 125–155). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  26. Lecavalier, L. (2006). Behavioral and emotional problems in young people with pervasive developmental disorders: Relative prevalence, effect of subject characteristics, and empirical classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 1101–1114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee, H. J., & Park, H. R. (2007). An integrated literature review on the adaptive behavior of individuals with Asperger syndrome. Remedial and Special Education, 28(3), 132–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lopata, C., Thomeer, M. L., Volker, M. A., Nida, R. E., & Lee, G. K. (2008). Effectiveness of a manualized summer social treatment program for high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 890–904.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lord, C., & Corsello, C. (2005). Diagnostic instruments in autistic spectrum disorders. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders: Vol. 2. Assessment, interventions, and policy (3rd ed., pp. 730–771). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  30. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P., & Risi, S. (2001). Autism diagnostic observation schedule manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  31. Macintosh, K., & Dissanayake, C. (2006). Social skills and problem behaviors in school aged children with high-functioning autism and Asperger’s disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 1065–1076.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. McDougle, C. J. (1998). Repetitive thoughts and behavior in pervasive developmental disorders. In E. Schopler, G. B. Mesibov, & L. J. Kunce (Eds.), Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism? (pp. 293–316). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  33. National Research Council (NRC). (2001). Educating children with autism. Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism. In C. Lord & J. P. McGee (Eds.), Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  34. Portway, S. M., & Johnson, B. (2005). Do you know I have Asperger’s syndrome? Risks of a non-obvious disability. Health, Risk and Society, 7(1), 73–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Reynolds, C. R. & Kamphaus, R. W. (1992, 1998). Behavior assessment system for children, manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service, Inc.Google Scholar
  36. Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). Behavior assessment system for children—Second edition. Circle Pines, MN: AGS.Google Scholar
  37. Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Autism diagnostic interview-revised. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  38. Safran, J. S., & Safran, S. P. (2001). School-based consultation for Asperger syndrome. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 12, 385–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Safran, S. P., Safran, J. S., & Ellis, K. (2003). Intervention ABCs for children with Asperger syndrome. Topics in Language Disorders, 23, 154–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tantum, D. (2000). Adolescence and adulthood of individuals with Asperger syndrome. In A. Klin, F. R. Volkmar, & S. S. Sparrow (Eds.), Asperger syndrome (pp. 367–399). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  41. Tellegen, A., & Briggs, P. F. (1967). Old wine in new skins: Grouping Wechsler subtests into new scales. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 31, 499–506.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Vickerstaff, S., Heriot, S., Wong, M., Lopes, A., & Dossetor, D. (2007). Intellectual ability, self-perceived social competence, and depressive symptomology in children with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1647–1664.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Volkmar, F. R., & Klin, A. (2000). Diagnostic issues in Asperger syndrome. In A. Klin, F. R. Volkmar, & S. S. Sparrow (Eds.), Asperger syndrome (pp. 25–71). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  44. Volkmar, F. R., & Klin, A. (2005). Issues in the classification of autism and related conditions. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders: Vol 1. Diagnosis, development, neurobiology, and behavior (3rd ed., pp. 5–41). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  45. Wechsler, D. (2003). Wechsler intelligence scale for children—4th edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  46. Weisbrot, D. M., Gadow, K. D., DeVincent, C. J., & Pomeroy, J. (2005). The presentation of anxiety in children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 15(3), 477–496.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin A. Volker
    • 1
  • Christopher Lopata
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  • Audrey M. Smerbeck
    • 1
  • Valerie A. Knoll
    • 2
  • Marcus L. Thomeer
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jennifer A. Toomey
    • 3
  • Jonathan D. Rodgers
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Counseling, School and Educational Psychology, University at BuffaloState University of New YorkBuffaloUSA
  2. 2.Kenmore-Town of Tonawanda Union Free School DistrictBuffaloUSA
  3. 3.Summit Educational ResourcesGetzvilleUSA
  4. 4.Institute for Autism Research, Canisius CollegeBuffaloUSA
  5. 5.Canisius College, Health Sciences (HS) 216BuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations