Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 39, Issue 7, pp 1066–1078

Brief Report: The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders at Different Cognitive Levels

  • Adrienne Perry
  • Helen E. Flanagan
  • Jennifer Dunn Geier
  • Nancy L. Freeman
Brief Report

Abstract

Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) data were examined in a large sample of young children with ASD (n = 290) of varying cognitive levels. IQ was higher than VABS composite score among high functioning children only; the opposite pattern was found in lower IQ subgroups. Profile analysis of VABS domains across cognitive levels demonstrated different profiles in different subgroups. A characteristic “autism profile” was found for most subgroups for Age Equivalents but not Standard Scores. In a small set of matched pairs (n = 28) of children with autism versus MR, significantly different profiles were found, with Socialization and Communication lower in autism, but no differences were found between matched pairs of children with autism and PDD-NOS (n = 48). Correlations between age, cognitive level, and adaptive level were also reported, and regression analyses indicated that autism severity accounts for a modest amount of unique variance in Socialization and Daily Living Skills.

Keywords

Adaptive Behavior Vineland Autism MR PDD-NOS Profiles 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: 4th ed., text revision. Washington, DC: Author.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bayley, N. (1993). The Bayley scales of infant development (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  4. Bolte, S., & Poustka, F. (2002). The relation between general cognitive level and adaptive behavior domains in individuals with autism with and without co-morbid mental retardation. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 33, 165–172. doi:10.1023/A:1020734325815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carpentieri, S., & Morgan, S. B. (1996). Adaptive and intellectual functioning in autistic and nonautistic retarded children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 26, 611–620. doi:10.1007/BF02172350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carter, A. S., Volkmar, F. R., Sparrow, S. S., Wang, J. J., Lord, C., Dawson, G., et al. (1998). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: Supplementary norms for individuals with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 287–302. doi:10.1023/A:1026056518470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cattell, P. (1940). Infant intelligence scale. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  8. Chadwick, O., Cuddy, M., Kusel, Y., & Taylor, E. (2005). Handicaps and the development of skills between childhood and early adolescence in young people with severe intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49, 877–888. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2005.00716.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Bildt, A., Kraijer, D., Sytema, S., & Minderaa, R. (2005). The psychometric properties of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales in children and adolescents with mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 53–62. doi:10.1007/s10803-004-1033-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. DiLalla, D. L., & Rogers, S. J. (1994). Domains of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale: Relevance for diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 115–128. doi:10.1007/BF02172092.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eaves, R. C., & Milner, B. (1993). The criterion-related validity of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and the Autism Behavior Checklist. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21, 481–491. doi:10.1007/BF00916315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fenton, G., D’Ardia, C., Valente, D., Vecchio, I., Fabrizi, A., & Bernabei, P. (2003). Vineland Adaptive Behavior profiles in children with autism and moderate to severe developmental delay. Autism, 7, 269–287. doi:10.1177/13623613030073004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Filipek, P. A., Accardo, J. P., Baranek, G. T., Cook, E. H., Dawson, G., Gordon, B., et al. (1999). The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 439–484. doi:10.1023/A:1021943802493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fombonne, E. (2005). Epidemiological studies of pervasive developmental disorders. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, R. A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (3rd ed., pp. 42–69). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  15. Freeman, B. J., Del’Homme, M., Guthrie, D., & Zhang, F. (1999). Vineland adaptive behavior scale scores as a function of age and initial IQ in 210 autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 379–384. doi:10.1023/A:1023078827457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Freeman, B. J., Rahbar, B., Ritvo, E. R., Bice, T. L., Yokota, A., & Ritvo, R. (1991). The stability of cognitive and behavioral parameters in autism: A twelve-year prospective study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 479–482. doi:10.1097/00004583-199105000-00020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Garfin, D. G., & McCallon, D. (1988). Validity and reliability of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale with autistic adolescents. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18, 367–378. doi:10.1007/BF02212193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gillham, J. E., Carter, A. S., Volkmar, F. R., & Sparrow, S. S. (2000). Towards a developmental operational definition of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 269–278. doi:10.1023/A:1005571115268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Klin, A., Saulnier, C. A., Sparrow, S., Cicchetti, D. V., Volkmar, F. R., & Lord, C. (2007). Social and communication abilities and disabilities in higher functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders: The Vineland and the ADOS. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 748–759. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0229-4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kraijer, D. (2000). Review of adaptive behavior studies in mentally retarded persons with autism/pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 39–47. doi:10.1023/A:1005460027636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liss, M., Harel, B., Fein, D., Allen, D., Dunn, A., Dunn, M., et al. (2001). Predictors and correlates of adaptive functioning in children with developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 219–230. doi:10.1023/A:1010707417274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Loveland, K. A., & Kelley, M. L. (1991). Development of adaptive behavior in preschoolers with autism or Down syndrome. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 96, 13–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Magyar, C. I., & Pandolfi, V. (2007). Factor structure evaluation of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1787–1794. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0313-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mandell, D. S., Novak, M. M., & Zubritsky, C. D. (2005). Factors associated with age of diagnosis among children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 116, 1480–1486. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-0185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mervis, C. B., & Klein-Tasman, B. P. (2004). Methodological issues in group-matching designs: α levels for control variable comparisons and measurement characteristics of control and target variables. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 7–17. doi:10.1023/B:JADD.0000018069.69562.b8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen scales of early learning. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  27. Njardvik, U., Matson, J. L., & Cherry, K. E. (1999). A comparison of social skills in adults with autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, and mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 287–295. doi:10.1023/A:1022107318500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Paul, R., Miles, S., Cicchetti, D., Sparrow, S., Klin, A., Volkmar, F., et al. (2004). Adaptive behavior in autism and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified: Microanalysis of scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 223–228. doi:10.1023/B:JADD.0000022612.18116.46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Perry, A., Condillac, R. A., & Freeman, N. L. (2002). Best practices and practical strategies for assessment and diagnosis of autism. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 9, 61–75.Google Scholar
  30. Perry, A., Condillac, R. A., Freeman, N. L., Dunn Geier, J., & Belair, J. (2005). Multi-site study of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) in five clinical groups of young children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 625–634. doi:10.1007/s10803-005-0006-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Perry, A., Dunn Geier, J., Penn, H., & Freeman, N.L. (2006, June). Validity of the Vineland “autism profile”. Poster presentation at the International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR), Montreal, QB.Google Scholar
  32. Perry, A., & Factor, D. C. (1989). Psychometric validity and clinical usefulness of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale for an autistic sample. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 41–55. doi:10.1007/BF02212717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Roid, G. H. (2003). Standford-Binet intelligence scales (5th ed.). Itasca, NY: Riverside.Google Scholar
  34. Roid, G. H., & Miller, L. J. (1997). The Leiter international performance scale-revised edition. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  35. Sattler, J. M. (2001). Assessment of children: Cognitive applications (4th ed.). San Diego, CA: Jerome Sattler Publisher Inc.Google Scholar
  36. Schatz, J., & Hamdan-Allen, G. (1995). Effects of age and IQ on adaptive behavior domains for children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 51–60. doi:10.1007/BF02178167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., & Renner, B. R. (1988). The childhood autism rating scale (CARS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  38. Sparrow, S., Balla, D., & Cicchetti, D. (1984). Vineland adaptive behavior scales. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  39. Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Balla, D. A. (2005). Vineland adaptive behavior scales (2nd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  40. Stone, W., Ousley, O., Hepburn, S., Hogan, K., & Brown, C. (1999). Patterns of adaptive behavior in very young children with autism. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 104, 187–199. doi:10.1352/0895-8017(1999)104<0187:POABIV>2.0.CO;2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Szatmari, P., Bryson, S. E., Boyle, M. H., Streiner, D. L., & Duku, E. (2003). Predictors of outcome among high functioning children with autism or Asperger syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 44, 520–528. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Google Scholar
  43. Tachimori, H., Osada, H., & Kurita, H. (2003). Childhood Autism Rating Scale–Tokyo version for screening pervasive developmental disorders. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 57, 113–118. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1819.2003.01087.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Thorndike, R. L. (1972). Manual for the Stanford-Binet intelligence scale. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin.Google Scholar
  45. Thorndike, R. L., Hagen, E. P., & Sattler, J. M. (1986). Stanford-Binet intelligence scale (4th ed.). Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.Google Scholar
  46. VanMeter, L., Fein, D., Morris, R., Waterhouse, L., & Allen, D. (1997). Delay versus deviance in autistic social behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27, 557–569. doi:10.1023/A:1025830110640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vig, S., & Jedrysek, E. (1995). Adaptive behavior of young urban children with developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation, 33, 90–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Volkmar, F., Carter, A., Sparrow, S., & Cicchetti, D. (1993). Quantifying social development in autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 627–632. doi:10.1097/00004583-199305000-00020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Volkmar, F. R., Sparrow, S. S., Goudreau, D., Cicchetti, D., Paul, R., & Cohen, D. J. (1987). Social deficits in autism: An operational approach using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 156–161. doi:10.1097/00004583-198703000-00005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wechsler, D. (2002). Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrienne Perry
    • 1
    • 2
  • Helen E. Flanagan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jennifer Dunn Geier
    • 3
  • Nancy L. Freeman
    • 4
    • 2
  1. 1.TRE-ADD (Treatment, Research, and Education for Autism and Developmental Disorders)Thistletown Regional CentreTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyYork UniversityTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Autism Intervention Program of Eastern OntarioChildren’s Hospital of Eastern OntarioOttawaCanada
  4. 4.Toronto Partnership for Autism ServicesSurrey Place CentreTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations