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Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 197–209 | Cite as

Autism symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Familial trait which Correlates with Conduct, Oppositional Defiant, Language and Motor Disorders

  • Aisling MulliganEmail author
  • Richard J. L. Anney
  • Myra O’Regan
  • Wai Chen
  • Louise Butler
  • Michael Fitzgerald
  • Jan Buitelaar
  • Hans-Christoph Steinhausen
  • Aribert Rothenberger
  • Ruud Minderaa
  • Judith Nijmeijer
  • Pieter J. Hoekstra
  • Robert D. Oades
  • Herbert Roeyers
  • Cathelijne Buschgens
  • Hanna Christiansen
  • Barbara Franke
  • Isabel Gabriels
  • Catharina Hartman
  • Jonna Kuntsi
  • Rafaela Marco
  • Sheera Meidad
  • Ueli Mueller
  • Lamprini Psychogiou
  • Nanda Rommelse
  • Margaret Thompson
  • Henrik Uebel
  • Tobias Banaschewski
  • Richard Ebstein
  • Jacques Eisenberg
  • Iris Manor
  • Ana Miranda
  • Fernando Mulas
  • Joseph Sergeant
  • Edmund Sonuga-Barke
  • Phil Asherson
  • Stephen V. Faraone
  • Michael Gill
Original Paper

Abstract

It is hypothesised that autism symptoms are present in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are familial and index subtypes of ADHD. Autism symptoms were compared in 821 ADHD probands, 1050 siblings and 149 controls. Shared familiality of autism symptoms and ADHD was calculated using DeFries-Fulker analysis. Autism symptoms were higher in probands than siblings or controls, and higher in male siblings than male controls. Autism symptoms were familial, partly shared with familiality of ADHD in males. Latent class analysis using SCQ-score yielded five classes; Class 1(31%) had few autism symptoms and low comorbidity; Classes 2–4 were intermediate; Class 5(7%) had high autism symptoms and comorbidity. Thus autism symptoms in ADHD represent a familial trait associated with increased neurodevelopmental and oppositional/conduct disorders.

Keywords

ADHD Autism Familiality Oppositional disorders Motor disorder Language disorder 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The IMAGE project is a multisite, international effort supported by NIH Grant R01MH62873 to SV Faraone. Site Principal Investigators are Philip Asherson, Tobias Banaschewski, Jan Buitelaar, Richard P Ebstein, Stephen V Faraone, Michael Gill, Ana Miranda, Robert D Oades, Herbert Roeyers, Aribert Rothenberger, Joseph Sergeant, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, and Hans-Christoph Steinhausen. Senior co-investigators are Margaret Thompson, Pak Sham, Peter McGuffin, Robert Plomin, Ian Craig and Eric Taylor. Chief Investigators at each site are Rafaela Marco, Nanda Rommelse, Ueli Mueller, Aisling Mulligan, Wai Chen, Henrik Uebel, Hanna Christiansen, Cathelijne Buschgens, Lamprini Psychogiou, Sheera Meidad, Isabel Gabriels. Other investigators are Marieke Altink, Ellen Fliers, Barbara Franke, Ruud Minderaa, Fernando Mulas and Alysa Doyle. We thank all the families who kindly participated in this research.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aisling Mulligan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Richard J. L. Anney
    • 1
  • Myra O’Regan
    • 1
  • Wai Chen
    • 3
  • Louise Butler
    • 1
  • Michael Fitzgerald
    • 1
  • Jan Buitelaar
    • 4
  • Hans-Christoph Steinhausen
    • 5
  • Aribert Rothenberger
    • 6
  • Ruud Minderaa
    • 7
  • Judith Nijmeijer
    • 7
  • Pieter J. Hoekstra
    • 7
  • Robert D. Oades
    • 8
  • Herbert Roeyers
    • 9
  • Cathelijne Buschgens
    • 4
  • Hanna Christiansen
    • 8
  • Barbara Franke
    • 4
  • Isabel Gabriels
    • 9
  • Catharina Hartman
    • 7
  • Jonna Kuntsi
    • 3
  • Rafaela Marco
    • 11
  • Sheera Meidad
    • 11
  • Ueli Mueller
    • 5
  • Lamprini Psychogiou
    • 12
  • Nanda Rommelse
    • 4
  • Margaret Thompson
    • 12
  • Henrik Uebel
    • 6
  • Tobias Banaschewski
    • 6
  • Richard Ebstein
    • 13
  • Jacques Eisenberg
    • 14
  • Iris Manor
    • 13
  • Ana Miranda
    • 11
  • Fernando Mulas
    • 10
  • Joseph Sergeant
    • 15
  • Edmund Sonuga-Barke
    • 16
  • Phil Asherson
    • 3
  • Stephen V. Faraone
    • 12
  • Michael Gill
    • 1
  1. 1.Trinity CollegeDublinIreland
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryTrinity Centre for Health Sciences, St James’s HospitalDublin 8Ireland
  3. 3.Institute of Psychiatry, LondonLondonUK
  4. 4.Radboud UniversityNijmegenThe Netherlands
  5. 5.University of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  6. 6.University of GöttingenGottingenGermany
  7. 7.University of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands
  8. 8.University Clinic for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, EssenEssenGermany
  9. 9.Ghent UniversityGhentBelgium
  10. 10.University Hospital La FeValenciaSpain
  11. 11.University of ValenciaValenciaSpain
  12. 12.SUNY Upstate Medical UniversitySyracuseUSA
  13. 13.Geha Mental Health CenterPetak TikvahIsrael
  14. 14.S. Herzog Memorial HospitalJerusalemIsrael
  15. 15.Vrije UniversiteitAmsterdamNetherlands
  16. 16.University of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK

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