Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 197–209

Autism symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Familial trait which Correlates with Conduct, Oppositional Defiant, Language and Motor Disorders

  • Aisling Mulligan
  • Richard J. L. Anney
  • Myra O’Regan
  • Wai Chen
  • Louise Butler
  • Michael Fitzgerald
  • Jan Buitelaar
  • Hans-Christoph Steinhausen
  • Aribert Rothenberger
  • Ruud Minderaa
  • Judith Nijmeijer
  • Pieter J. Hoekstra
  • Robert D. Oades
  • Herbert Roeyers
  • Cathelijne Buschgens
  • Hanna Christiansen
  • Barbara Franke
  • Isabel Gabriels
  • Catharina Hartman
  • Jonna Kuntsi
  • Rafaela Marco
  • Sheera Meidad
  • Ueli Mueller
  • Lamprini Psychogiou
  • Nanda Rommelse
  • Margaret Thompson
  • Henrik Uebel
  • Tobias Banaschewski
  • Richard Ebstein
  • Jacques Eisenberg
  • Iris Manor
  • Ana Miranda
  • Fernando Mulas
  • Joseph Sergeant
  • Edmund Sonuga-Barke
  • Phil Asherson
  • Stephen V. Faraone
  • Michael Gill
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10803-008-0621-3

Cite this article as:
Mulligan, A., Anney, R.J.L., O’Regan, M. et al. J Autism Dev Disord (2009) 39: 197. doi:10.1007/s10803-008-0621-3

Abstract

It is hypothesised that autism symptoms are present in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are familial and index subtypes of ADHD. Autism symptoms were compared in 821 ADHD probands, 1050 siblings and 149 controls. Shared familiality of autism symptoms and ADHD was calculated using DeFries-Fulker analysis. Autism symptoms were higher in probands than siblings or controls, and higher in male siblings than male controls. Autism symptoms were familial, partly shared with familiality of ADHD in males. Latent class analysis using SCQ-score yielded five classes; Class 1(31%) had few autism symptoms and low comorbidity; Classes 2–4 were intermediate; Class 5(7%) had high autism symptoms and comorbidity. Thus autism symptoms in ADHD represent a familial trait associated with increased neurodevelopmental and oppositional/conduct disorders.

Keywords

ADHD Autism Familiality Oppositional disorders Motor disorder Language disorder 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aisling Mulligan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Richard J. L. Anney
    • 1
  • Myra O’Regan
    • 1
  • Wai Chen
    • 3
  • Louise Butler
    • 1
  • Michael Fitzgerald
    • 1
  • Jan Buitelaar
    • 4
  • Hans-Christoph Steinhausen
    • 5
  • Aribert Rothenberger
    • 6
  • Ruud Minderaa
    • 7
  • Judith Nijmeijer
    • 7
  • Pieter J. Hoekstra
    • 7
  • Robert D. Oades
    • 8
  • Herbert Roeyers
    • 9
  • Cathelijne Buschgens
    • 4
  • Hanna Christiansen
    • 8
  • Barbara Franke
    • 4
  • Isabel Gabriels
    • 9
  • Catharina Hartman
    • 7
  • Jonna Kuntsi
    • 3
  • Rafaela Marco
    • 11
  • Sheera Meidad
    • 11
  • Ueli Mueller
    • 5
  • Lamprini Psychogiou
    • 12
  • Nanda Rommelse
    • 4
  • Margaret Thompson
    • 12
  • Henrik Uebel
    • 6
  • Tobias Banaschewski
    • 6
  • Richard Ebstein
    • 13
  • Jacques Eisenberg
    • 14
  • Iris Manor
    • 13
  • Ana Miranda
    • 11
  • Fernando Mulas
    • 10
  • Joseph Sergeant
    • 15
  • Edmund Sonuga-Barke
    • 16
  • Phil Asherson
    • 3
  • Stephen V. Faraone
    • 12
  • Michael Gill
    • 1
  1. 1.Trinity CollegeDublinIreland
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryTrinity Centre for Health Sciences, St James’s HospitalDublin 8Ireland
  3. 3.Institute of Psychiatry, LondonLondonUK
  4. 4.Radboud UniversityNijmegenThe Netherlands
  5. 5.University of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  6. 6.University of GöttingenGottingenGermany
  7. 7.University of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands
  8. 8.University Clinic for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, EssenEssenGermany
  9. 9.Ghent UniversityGhentBelgium
  10. 10.University Hospital La FeValenciaSpain
  11. 11.University of ValenciaValenciaSpain
  12. 12.SUNY Upstate Medical UniversitySyracuseUSA
  13. 13.Geha Mental Health CenterPetak TikvahIsrael
  14. 14.S. Herzog Memorial HospitalJerusalemIsrael
  15. 15.Vrije UniversiteitAmsterdamNetherlands
  16. 16.University of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK

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