Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 38, Issue 7, pp 1341–1348 | Cite as

The Motivation of Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior: Examination of Construct Validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale

Original Paper

Abstract

Construct validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (Durand, Crimmins, The Motivation Assessment Scale 1988) was studied using Rasch analysis data from 67 children (246 MASs), with dual diagnosis of autism and intellectual disability or with intellectual disability only. Results failed to support the proposed unidimensional construct or the original 4-factor structure. Some motivators appear to form a unidimensional construct: “to gain attention”, “to gain a tangible object”, and “to escape”. There was evidence that sensory stimulation represents a different construct. Children with intellectual disability were more apt to be motivated by desire to gain a tangible item or attention. Children with the dual diagnoses were more apt to have sensory stimulation or escape from task demand as a motivator for stereotypic and repetitive behavior.

Keywords

Motivation Stereotypic Repetitive Validity Rasch analysis 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Ed). Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  2. Adrien, J. L., Ornitz, E. M., Barthelemy, C., Sauvage, D., & Lelord, G. (1987). The presence or absence of certain behaviors associated with infantile autism in severely retarded autistic and nonautisitc retarded children and very young normal children. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 17(3), 407–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bihm, E. M., Kienlen, T. L., Ness, M. E., & Poindexter, A. R. (1991). Factor structure of the Motivation Assessment Scale for persons with mental retardation. Psychological Reports, 68, 1235–1238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bodfish, J. W. (2004). Treating the core features of autism: Are we there yet? Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 10, 318–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bodfish, J. W., Symons, F. J., Parker, D. E., & Lewis, M. H. (2000). Varieties of repetitive behavior in autism: Comparisons to mental retardation. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 237–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonadonna, P. (1981). Effects of a vestibular stimulation program on stereotypic rocking behavior. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 35(12), 775–781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bond, T. G., & Fox, C. M. (2001). Applying the Rasch model: Fundamental measurement in the human sciences. New Jersey: Lawrence Erbaulm Associates.Google Scholar
  8. Bond, T. G., & Fox, C. M. (2007). Applying the Rasch model: Fundamental measurement in the human sciences (2nd. Ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erbaulm Associates.Google Scholar
  9. Didden, R., Duker, P. C., & Korzilius, H. (1997). Meta-analytic study on treatment effectiveness for problem behaviors with individuals who have mental retardation. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 101, 387–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Duker, P. C., & Sigafoos, J. (1998). The Motivation Assessment Scale: Reliability and construct validity across three typographies of behavior. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 19(2), 131–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Durand, V. M., & Carr, E. G. (1987). Social influences on “self-stimulatory” behavior: Analysis and treatment applications. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20(2), 119–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Durand, V. M., & Crimmins, D. B. (1988a). Identifying the variables maintaining self-injurious behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18(1), 99–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Durand, V. M., & Crimmins, D. B. (1988b). The Motivation Assessment Scale. Topeka: Monaco & Associates.Google Scholar
  14. Filipek, P., Accardo, P. J., Baranek, G. T., Cook, E. H. J., Dawson, G., Gordon, B., et al. (1999). The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 29(6), 439–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Floyd, R. G., Phaneuf, R. L., & Wilczynski, S. M. (2005). Measurement properties of indirect assessment methods of functional behavioral assessment: A review of research. School Psychology Review, 34(1), 58–74.Google Scholar
  16. Guess, D., & Carr, E. G. (1991). Emergence and maintenance of stereotypy and self-injury. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 96(3), 299–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hall, S., Oliver, C., & Murphy, G. (2001). Early development of self-injurious behavior: An empirical Study. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 106(2), 189–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hall, S., Thorns, T., & Oliver, C. (2003). Structural and environmental characteristics of stereotyped behaviors. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 108(6), 391–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Horner, R. H., Carr, E. G., Strain, P. S., Todd, A. W., & Reed, H. K. (2002). Problem behavior interventions for young children with autism: A research synthesis. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 32(5), 223–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Howlin, P. (1998a). Practitioner review: Psychological and educational treatments for autism. Journal Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39(3), 307–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Iwata, B., Dorsey, M., Slifer, K., Bauman, K. E., & Richman, G. S. (1982). Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Analysis and Intervention if Developmental Disabilities, 2, 3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. King, B. H., & Lynn, D. (1998). Self-injurious behavior in mental retardation. Current opinion in Psychiatry, 11, 523–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kroeker, R., Unis, A. S., & Sackett, G. P. (2002). Characteristics of early rhythmic behaviors in children at risk for developmental disorders. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(1), 67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. LaGrow, S. J., & Repp, A. C. (1984). Stereotypic responding: A review of intervention research. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 88, 595–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Linacre, J. M. (2005). A user’s guide to Winsteps Ministeps: Rasch-model computer programs. Chicago.Google Scholar
  26. MacDonald, R., Green, G., Mansfield, R., Geckeler, A., Gardenier, N., Anderson, J., et al. (2007). Stereotypy in young children with autism and typically developing children. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28, 266–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Matson, J. L., Bamburg, J. W., Mayville, E. A., & Khan, I. (1999). Seizure disorders in people with intellectual disability: an analysis of differences in social functioning, adaptive functioning and maladaptive behaviors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 43(6), 531–539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nijhof, G., Joha, D., & Pekelharing, H. (1998). Aspects of stereotypic behavior among autistic persons: A study of the literature. The British Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 44,1(86), 3–13.Google Scholar
  29. O’Reilly, M., Sigafoos, J., Lancioni, G., Edrisinha, C., & Andrews, A. (2005). An examination of the effects of a classroom activity schedule on levels of self-injury and engagement for a child with severe autism. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 35(3), 305–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Paclawskyj, T. R., Matson, J. L., Rush, K. S., Smalls, Y., & Vollmer, T. R. (2001). Assessment of the convergent validity of the Questions about Behavioral Function Scale with analogue functional analysis and the Motivation Assessment Scale. Journal of International Disability Research, 45(6), 484–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schneck C. M. (2000). The efficacy of a sensorimotor treatment approach by occupational therapists. In R. A. Huebner (Ed.), Autism: A sensorimotor approach to management (pp. 139–178). Austin: PRO-ED INC.Google Scholar
  32. Schreibman, L. (1994). General principals of behavior management. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), Behavioral issues in autism (pp. 11–39). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  33. Sigafoos, J., Kerr, M., & Roberts, D. (1994). Interrater reliability of the Motivation Assessment Scale: Failure to replicate with aggressive behavior. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 15(5), 333–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Singh, N. N., Donatelli, L. S., Best, A., Williams, D. E., Barrera, F. J., Lenz, M. W., et al. (1993). Factor structure of the Motivation Assessment Scale. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 37, 65–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Smith, E. V. J. (2004). Detecting and evaluating the impact of multidimensionality using item fit statistics and princioal component analysis of residuals. In E. V. J. Smith & R. M. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to Rasch Measurement (pp. 575–599). Maple Grove: JAM Press.Google Scholar
  36. Spreat, S., & Connelly, L. (1996). Reliability analysis of the Motivation Assessment Scale. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 100(5), 528–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Sturmey, P., Carlsen, A., Crisp, G., & Newton, J. T. (1988). A functional analysis of multiple aberrant responses: a refinement and extension of Iwatas’ et al.’s (1982) methodology. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 32, 31–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Turner, M. (1999). Annotation: Repetitive behavior in autism: A review of psychological research. Journal Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40(6), 839–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wieseler, N., Hanson, R. H., Chamberlain, T. P., & Thompson, T. (1985). Functional taxonomy of stereotypic and self-injurious behavior. Mental Retardation, 23, 230–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Wright, B. D., & Stone, M. H. (1979). Best test design. Chicago: Mesa Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Health ScienceUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Ballarat Specialist SchoolBallaratAustralia

Personalised recommendations