Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 37, Issue 9, pp 1776–1786 | Cite as

Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Velo-cardio Facial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion)

  • Kevin M. Antshel
  • Alka Aneja
  • Leslie Strunge
  • Jena Peebles
  • Wanda P. Fremont
  • Kimberly Stallone
  • Nuria AbdulSabur
  • Anne Marie Higgins
  • Robert J. Shprintzen
  • Wendy R. Kates
Original paper


The extent to which the phenotype of children comorbid for velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) differs from that of VCFS-only has not been studied. The sample consisted of 41 children (20 females) with VCFS, ranging in age from 6.5 years to 15.8 years. Eight children with VCFS met formal DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for autism based upon the ADI-R. These eight plus an additional nine participants met diagnostic criteria for an autistic spectrum disorder (VCFS + ASD). Ninety-four percent of the children with VCFS + ASD had a co-occurring psychiatric disorder while 60% of children with VCFS had a psychiatric disorder. Children with VCFS + ASD had larger right amygdala volumes. All other neuroanatomic regions of interest were statistically similar between the two groups.


Velocardiofacial syndrome 22q11.2 deletion Autism spectrum disorder Amygdala 



This work was supported by NIH grants MH64824 and MH65481 to Wendy Kates.


  1. Achenbach, T. (1991). Child behavior checklist. Burlington, VT: ASEBA.Google Scholar
  2. Amaral, D. G., Bauman, M. D., & Schumann, C. M. (2003). The amygdala and autism: Implications from non-human primate studies. Genes Brain Behavior, 2(5),295–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AmericanPsychiatricAssociation. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Antshel, K. M., AbdulSabur, N., Roizen, N., Fremont, W., & Kates, W. R. (2005). Sex differences in cognitive functioning in velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). Developmental Neuropsychology, 28(3), 849–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antshel, K. M., Fremont, W., Roizen, N. J., Shprintzen, R., Higgins, A. M., Dhamoon, A., et al. (2006). ADHD, major depressive disorder, and simple phobias are prevalent psychiatric conditions in youth with velocardiofacial syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(5), 596–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Antshel, K. M., Stallone, K., AbdulSabur, N., Shprintzen, R., Roizen, N., Higgins, A. M., et al. (in press). Temperament in velocardiofacial syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research.Google Scholar
  7. Baron-Cohen, S., Ring, H. A., Bullmore, E. T., Wheelwright, S., Ashwin, C., & Williams, S. C. (2000). The amygdala theory of autism. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24(3), 355–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bearden, C. E., Jawad, A. F., Lynch, D. R., Sokol, S., Kanes, S. J., McDonald-McGinn, D. M., et al. (2004). Effects of a functional COMT polymorphism on prefrontal cognitive function in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(9), 1700–1702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bennetto, L., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1996). Intact and impaired memory functions in autism. Child Development, 67(4), 1816–1835.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boddaert, N., Chabane, N., Gervais, H., Good, C. D., Bourgeois, M., Plumet, M. H., et al. (2004). Superior temporal sulcus anatomical abnormalities in childhood autism: A voxel-based morphometry MRI study. Neuroimage, 23(1), 364–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bradley, E. A., Summers, J. A., Wood, H. L., & Bryson, S. E. (2004). Comparing rates of psychiatric and behavior disorders in adolescents and young adults with severe intellectual disability with and without autism. Journal of Autism Development and Disorder, 34(2), 151–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brambilla, P., Hardan, A., di Nemi, S. U., Perez, J., Soares, J. C., & Barale, F. (2003). Brain anatomy and development in autism: Review of structural MRI studies. Brain Research Bulletin, 61(6), 557–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Capone, G. T., Grados, M. A., Kaufmann, W. E., Bernad-Ripoll, S., & Jewell, A. (2005). Down syndrome and comorbid autism-spectrum disorder: Characterization using the aberrant behavior checklist. American Journal of Medical Genetics A, 134(4), 373–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chow, E. W., Bassett, A. S., & Weksberg, R. (1994). Velo-cardio-facial syndrome and psychotic disorders: Implications for psychiatric genetics. American Jorunal of Medical Genetics, 54(2), 107–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chudley, A. E., Gutierrez, E., Jocelyn, L. J., & Chodirker, B. N. (1998). Outcomes of genetic evaluation in children with pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 19(5), 321–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen, D., Pichard, N., Tordjman, S., Baumann, C., Burglen, L., Excoffier, E., et al. (2005). Specific genetic disorders and autism: Clinical contribution towards their identification. Journal of Autism Development and Disorder, 35(1), 103–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Courchesne, E., Karns, C. M., Davis, H. R., Ziccardi, R., Carper, R. A., Tigue, Z. D., et al. (2001). Unusual brain growth patterns in early life in patients with autistic disorder: An MRI study. Neurology, 57(2), 245–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Critchley, H. D., Daly, E. M., Bullmore, E. T., Williams, S. C., Van Amelsvoort, T., Robertson, D. M., et al. (2000). The functional neuroanatomy of social behaviour: Changes in cerebral blood flow when people with autistic disorder process facial expressions. Brain, 123(Pt 11), 2203–2212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Curatolo, P., Porfirio, M. C., Manzi, B., & Seri, S. (2004). Autism in tuberous sclerosis. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 8(6), 327–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davis, H. R. (1998). Colorado assessment tests— visual span test. Boulder, CO: Colorado Assessment Tests.Google Scholar
  21. Eliez, S. (in press). Letter to the Editor. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  22. Eliez, S., Blasey, C. M., Schmitt, E. J., White, C. D., Hu, D., & Reiss, A. L. (2001). Velocardiofacial syndrome: Are structural changes in the temporal and mesial temporal regions related to schizophrenia? American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(3), 447–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eliez, S., Palacio-Espasa, F., Spira, A., Lacroix, M., Pont, C., Luthi, F., et al. (2000). Young children with Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome (CATCH-22). Psychological and language phenotypes. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 9(2), 109–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Feinstein, C., Eliez, S., Blasey, C., & Reiss, A. L. (2002). Psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems in children with velocardiofacial syndrome: Usefulness as phenotypic indicators of schizophrenia risk. Biological Psychiatry, 51(4), 312–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fine, S. E., Weissman, A., Gerdes, M., Pinto-Martin, J., Zackai, E. H., McDonald-McGinn, D. M. et al. (2005). Autism spectrum disorders and symptoms in children with molecularly confirmed 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 35(4), 461–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gerdes, M., Solot, C., Wang, P. P., Moss, E., LaRossa, D., Randall, P., et al. (1999). Cognitive and behavior profile of preschool children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion. Americn Journal of Medical Genetics, 85(2), 127–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gillberg, C. (1992). Subgroups in autism: Are there behavioural phenotypes typical of underlying medical conditions? Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 36(Pt 3), 201–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Glaser, B., Mumme, D. L., Blasey, C., Morris, M. A., Dahoun, S. P., Antonarakis, S. E., et al. (2002). Language skills in children with velocardiofacial syndrome (deletion 22q11.2). Journal of Pediatrcis, 140(6), 753–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goodlin-Jones, B. L., Tassone, F., Gane, L. W., & Hagerman, R. J. (2004). Autistic spectrum disorder and the fragile X premutation. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 25(6), 392–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gordon, M., McClure, F. D., & Aylward, G. P. (1989). Gordon diagnostic system. Dewitt, NY: Gordon Diagnostic Systems.Google Scholar
  31. Gracious, B. L., Youngstrom, E. A., Findling, R. L., & Calabrese, J. R. (2002). Discriminative validity of a parent version of the Young Mania Rating Scale. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(11), 1350–1359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gur, R., Cowell, P., Latshaw, A., Turetsky, B., Grossman, R., Arnold, S., et al. (2000). Reduced dorsal and orbital prefrontal gray matter volumes in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 761–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hadjikhani, N., Joseph, R. M., Snyder, J., Chabris, C. F., Clark, J., Steele, S., et al. (2004). Activation of the fusiform gyrus when individuals with autism spectrum disorder view faces. Neuroimage, 22(3), 1141–1150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Heaton, R. K., Chelune, G. J., Talley, J. L., Kay, G. G., & Curtiss, G. (1993). Wisconsin card sort test manual: Revised and expanded. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
  35. Hill, E. L. (2004). Executive dysfunction in autism. Trends in Cognition Science, 8(1), 26–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Howard, M. A., Cowell, P. E., Boucher, J., Broks, P., Mayes, A., Farrant, A., et al. (2000). Convergent neuroanatomical and behavioural evidence of an amygdala hypothesis of autism. Neuroreport, 11(13), 2931–2935.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. IMGSAC. (2001). A genomewide screen for autism: strong evidence for linkage to chromosomes 2q, 7q, and 16p. American Journal of Human Genetics, 69(3), 570–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jopp, D. A., & Keys, C. B. (2001). Diagnostic overshadowing reviewed and reconsidered. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 106, 416–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Joseph, R. M., McGrath, L. M., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2005). Executive dysfunction and its relation to language ability in verbal school-age children with autism. Developmental Neuropsycholgy, 27(3), 361–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kao, A., Mariani, J., McDonald-McGinn, D. M., Maisenbacher, M. K., Brooks-Kayal, A. R., Zackai, E. H., et al. (2004). Increased prevalence of unprovoked seizures in patients with a 22q11.2 deletion. American Journal of Medical Genetics A, 129(1), 29–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kaplan, D. M., Liu, A. M., Abrams, M. T., Warsofsky, I. S., Kates, W. R., White, C. D., et al. (1997). Application of an automated parcellation method to the analysis of pediatric brain volumes. Psychiatry Research, 76(1), 15–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kates, W. R., Abrams, M. T., Kaufmann, W. E., Breiter, S. N., & Reiss, A. L. (1997). Reliability and validity of MRI measurement of the amygdala and hippocampus in children with fragile X syndrome. Psychiatry Research, 75(1), 31–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kates, W. R., Antshel, K., Willhite, R., Bessette, B. A., AbdulSabur, N., & Higgins, A. M. (2005). Gender-moderated dorsolateral prefrontal reductions in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Implications for risk for schizophrenia. Child Neuropsychology, 11(1), 73–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kates, W. R., Burnette, C. P., Eliez, S., Strunge, L. A., Kaplan, D., Landa, R., et al. (2004). Neuroanatomic variation in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for the narrow phenotype for autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(3), 539–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kates, W. R., Burnette, C. P., Jabs, E. W., Rutberg, J., Murphy, A. M., Grados, M., et al. (2001). Regional cortical white matter reductions in velocardiofacial syndrome: A volumetric MRI analysis. Biological Psychiatry, 49(8), 677–684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kates, W. R., Miller, A. M., Abdulsabur, N., Antshel, K. M., Conchelos, J., Fremont, W., et al. (2006). Temporal lobe anatomy and psychiatric symptoms in velocardiofacial syndrome (22q11.2 deletion syndrome). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(5), 587–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kates, W. R., Mostofsky, S. H., Zimmerman, A. W., Mazzocco, M. M., Landa, R., Warsofsky, I. S., et al. (1998). Neuroanatomical and neurocognitive differences in a pair of monozygous twins discordant for strictly defined autism. Annals of Neurology, 43(6), 782–791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kau, A. S., Tierney, E., Bukelis, I., Stump, M. H., Kates, W. R., Trescher, W. H., et al. (2004). Social behavior profile in young males with fragile X syndrome: Characteristics and specificity. American Journal of Medical Genetics A, 126(1), 9–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D., Rao, U., Flynn, C., Moreci, P., et al. (1997). Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children-present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): Initial reliability and validity data. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(7), 980–988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kaufmann, W. E., Cortell, R., Kau, A. S., Bukelis, I., Tierney, E., Gray, R. M., et al. (2004). Autism spectrum disorder in fragile X syndrome: Communication, social interaction, and specific behaviors. American Journal of Medical Genetics A, 129(3), 225–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Komoto, J., Usui, S., & Hirata, J. (1984). Infantile autism and affective disorder. Journal of Autism Development and Disorder, 14(1), 81–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. LeDoux, J. E. (1992). Brain mechanisms of emotion and emotional learning. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 2(2), 191–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Leyfer, O. T., Folstein, S. E., Bacalman, S., Davis, N. O., Dinh, E., Morgan, J., et al. (2006). Comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism: Interview development and rates of disorders. Journal of Autism Development and Disorder, 36, 849–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P., & Risi, S. (1999). Autism diagnostic observation schedule manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  55. Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism Development and Disorder, 24(5), 659–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Milner, B. (1971). Interhemispheric differences in the localization of psychological processes in man. British Medical Bulletin, 27(3), 272–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Muhle, R., Trentacoste, S. V., & Rapin, I. (2004). The genetics of autism. Pediatrics, 113(5), e472–e486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Munson, J., Dawson, G., Abbott, R., Faja, S., Webb, S. J., Friedman, S. D., et al. (2006). Amygdalar volume and behavioral development in autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(6), 686–693.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Murphy, K. C., Jones, L. A., & Owen, M. J. (1999). High rates of schizophrenia in adults with velo-cardio-facial syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56(10), 940–945.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Niklasson, L., Rasmussen, P., Oskarsdottir, S., & Gillberg, C. (2001). Neuropsychiatric disorders in the 22q11 deletion syndrome. Genetic Medicine, 3(1), 79–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ogilvie, C. M., Moore, J., Daker, M., Palferman, S., & Docherty, Z. (2000). Chromosome 22q11 deletions are not found in autistic patients identified using strict diagnostic criteria. IMGSAC. International Molecular Genetics Study of Autism Consortium. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 96(1), 15–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ozonoff, S., & Jensen, J. (1999). Brief report: Specific executive function profiles in three neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of Autism Development and Disorder, 29(2), 171–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ozonoff, S., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1991). Executive function deficits in high-functioning autistic individuals: Relationship to theory of mind. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32(7), 1081–1105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ozonoff, S., & Strayer, D. L. (2001). Further evidence of intact working memory in autism. Journal of Autism Development and Disorder, 31(3), 257–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Papolos, D. F., Faedda, G. L., Veit, S., Goldberg, R., Morrow, B., Kucherlapati, R., et al. (1996). Bipolar spectrum disorders in patients diagnosed with velo-cardio-facial syndrome: Does a hemizygous deletion of chromosome 22q11 result in bipolar affective disorder? American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(12), 1541–1547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Pelphrey, K., Adolphs, R., & Morris, J. P. (2004). Neuroanatomical substrates of social cognition dysfunction in autism. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disability Research Reviews, 10(4), 259–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pennington, B. F., & Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37(1), 51–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Philippe, A., Martinez, M., Guilloud-Bataille, M., Gillberg, C., Rastam, M., Sponheim, E., et al. (1999). Genome-wide scan for autism susceptibility genes. Paris Autism Research International Sibpair Study. Human Molecular Genetcis, 8(5), 805–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Polleux, F., & Lauder, J. M. (2004). Toward a developmental neurobiology of autism. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disability Research Reviews, 10(4), 303–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Reiss, A. L. (2002). BrainImage. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University School of Medicine.Google Scholar
  71. Reynolds C. R., & Kamphaus R. W. (1992). Behavioral assessment system for children Circle Pines, MN: AGS.Google Scholar
  72. Risi, S., Lord, C., Gotham, K., Corsello, C., Chrysler, C., Szatmari, P., et al. (2006). Combining information from multiple sources in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescence and Psychiatry, 45(9), 1094–1103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Robins, D. L., Fein, D., Barton, M. L., & Green, J. A. (2001). The modified checklist for autism in toddlers: An initial study investigating the early detection of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism Development and Disorder, 31(2), 131–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Roubertie, A., Semprino, M., Chaze, A. M., Rivier, F., Humbertclaude, V., Cheminal, R., et al. (2001). Neurological presentation of three patients with 22q11 deletion (CATCH 22 syndrome). Brain Development, 23(8), 810–814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., & Ro, B. (1988). Childhood autism rating scales (CARS). Circle Pines, MN: AGS.Google Scholar
  76. Schultz, R. T., Gauthier, I., Klin, A., Fulbright, R. K., Anderson, A. W., Volkmar, F., et al. (2000). Abnormal ventral temporal cortical activity during face discrimination among individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome. Archieves in General Psychiatry, 57(4), 331–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Shprintzen, R. J. (2000). Velo-cardio-facial syndrome: A distinctive behavioral phenotype. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disability Research Reviews, 6(2), 142–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Shprintzen, R. J., Higgins, A. M., Antshel, K., Fremont, W., Roizen, N., & Kates, W. (2005). Velo-cardio-facial syndrome. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 17(6), 725–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Smith, T., Groen, A. D., & Wynn, J. W. (2000). Randomized trial of intensive early intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorder. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 105(4), 269–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sovner, R. (1989). The use of valproate in the treatment of mentally retarded persons with typical and atypical bipolar disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 50(Suppl), 40–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Sparks, B. F., Friedman, S. D., Shaw, D. W., Aylward, E. H., Echelard, D., Artru, A. A., et al. (2002). Brain structural abnormalities in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Neurology, 59(2), 184–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cichetti, D. V. (1983). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Circle Pines, MN: AGS.Google Scholar
  83. Sverd, J. (2003). Psychiatric disorders in individuals with pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 9(2), 111–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Swillen, A., Devriendt, K., Legius, E., Eyskens, B., Dumoulin, M., Gewillig, M., et al. (1997). Intelligence and psychosocial adjustment in velocardiofacial syndrome: A study of 37 children and adolescents with VCFS. Journal of Medical Genetics, 34(6), 453–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Swillen, A., Devriendt, K., Legius, E., Prinzie, P., Vogels, A., Ghesquiere, P., et al. (1999). The behavioural phenotype in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS): From infancy to adolescence. Genetic Counseling, 10(1), 79–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Swillen, A., Vandeputte, L., Cracco, J., Maes, B., Ghesquiere, P., Devriendt, K., et al. (1999). Neuropsychological, learning and psychosocial profile of primary school aged children with the velo-cardio-facial syndrome (22q11 deletion): Evidence for a nonverbal learning disability? Child Neuropsychology, 5(4), 230–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Turner, L. M., Stone, W. L., Pozdol, S. L., & Coonrod, E. E. (2006). Follow-up of children with autism spectrum disorders from age 2 to age 9. Autism, 10(3), 243–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. van Amelsvoort, T., Daly, E., Henry, J., Robertson, D., Ng, V., Owen, M., et al. (2004). Brain anatomy in adults with velocardiofacial syndrome with and without schizophrenia: Preliminary results of a structural magnetic resonance imaging study. Archieves in General Psychiatry, 61(11), 1085–1096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Veenstra-VanderWeele, J., & Cook, E. H., Jr. (2004). Molecular genetics of autism spectrum disorder. Molecular Psychiatry, 9(9), 819–832.Google Scholar
  90. Vorstman, J. A., Morcus, M. E., Duijff, S. N., Klaassen, P. W., Heineman-de Boer, J. A., Beemer, F. A., et al. (2006). The 22q11.2 deletion in children: High rate of autistic disorders and early onset of psychotic symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(9), 1104–1113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Vorstman, J. A., Staal, W. G., van Daalen, E., van Engeland, H., Hochstenbach, P. F., & Franke, L. (2006). Identification of novel autism candidate regions through analysis of reported cytogenetic abnormalities associated with autism. Molecular Psychiatry, 11(1), 1, 18–28.Google Scholar
  92. Walker, D. R., Thompson, A., Zwaigenbaum, L., Goldberg, J., Bryson, S. E., Mahoney, W. J., et al. (2004). Specifying PDD-NOS: A comparison of PDD-NOS, Asperger syndrome, and autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(2), 172–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wang, A. T., Dapretto, M., Hariri, A. R., Sigman, M., & Bookheimer, S. Y. (2004). Neural correlates of facial affect processing in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(4), 481–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler intelligence scale for children (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  95. Weisbrot, D. M., Gadow, K. D., DeVincent, C. J., & Pomeroy, J. (2005). The presentation of anxiety in children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Child Adolescent and Psychopharmacology, 15(3), 477–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wing, L. (1997). Syndromes of autism and atypical development. (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley Press.Google Scholar
  97. Wozniak, J., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Frazier, J., Kim, J., Millstein, R., et al. (1997). Mania in children with pervasive developmental disorder revisited. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(11), 1552–1559; discussion 1559–1560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ylisaukko-oja, T., Alarcon, M., Cantor, R. M., Auranen, M., Vanhala, R., Kempas, E., et al. (2006). Search for autism loci by combined analysis of autism genetic resource exchange and finnish families. Annals of Neurology, 59(1), 145–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Youngstrom, E. A., Danielson, C. K., Findling, R. L., Gracious, B. L., & Calabrese, J. R. (2002). Factor structure of the Young Mania Rating Scale for use with youths ages 5 to 17 years. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31(4), 567–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zwaigenbaum, L., Bryson, S., Rogers, T., Roberts, W., Brian, J., & Szatmari, P. (2005). Behavioral manifestations of autism in the first year of life. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 23(2–3), 143–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin M. Antshel
    • 1
  • Alka Aneja
    • 1
  • Leslie Strunge
    • 2
  • Jena Peebles
    • 1
  • Wanda P. Fremont
    • 1
  • Kimberly Stallone
    • 1
  • Nuria AbdulSabur
    • 1
  • Anne Marie Higgins
    • 1
  • Robert J. Shprintzen
    • 1
  • Wendy R. Kates
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.State University of New York - Upstate Medical UniversitySyracuseUSA
  2. 2.Kennedy Krieger InstituteBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations