Advertisement

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 321–328 | Cite as

A Comparison of Motor Delays in Young Children: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Developmental Concerns

  • Beth Provost
  • Brian R. Lopez
  • Sandra Heimerl
ORGINAL PAPER

Abstract

This study assessed motor delay in young children 21–41 months of age with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and compared motor scores in children with ASD to those of children without ASD. Fifty-six children (42 boys, 14 girls) were in three groups: children with ASD, children with developmental delay (DD), and children with developmental concerns without motor delay. Descriptive analysis showed all children with ASD had delays in gross motor skills, fine motor skills, or both. Children with ASD and children with DD showed significant impairments in motor development compared to children who had developmental concerns without motor delay. Motor scores of young children with ASD did not differ significantly on motor skill measures when compared to young children with DD.

Keywords

Autism Autism spectrum disorder Early childhood Developmental delay Motor delay Motor development 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to acknowledge all the families that participated in the current study and the assistance of Nae-Hwa Kim for her help. We would also like to acknowledge the Center for Development and Disability, the New Mexico Department of Health, and New Mexico Public Education Department for their support in completing the project.

References

  1. Adrien, J. L., Lenoir, P., Martineau, J., Perrot, A., Hameury, L., Larmande, C., & Sauvage, D. (1993). Blind ratings of early symptoms of autism based upon family home movies. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 617–626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th ed.). Washington: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Baranek, G. T. (1999). Autism during infancy: a retrospective video analysis of sensory-motor and social behaviors at 9–12 months of age. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 213–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baranek, G. T. (2002). Efficacy of sensory and motor interventions for children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 397–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bayley N. (1993). Bayley scales of infant development manual. (2nd ed.). San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  6. Berkeley, S. L., Zittel, L. L., Pitney, L. V., & Nichols, S. E. (2001). Locomotor and object control skills of children diagnosed with autism. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 18, 405–416.Google Scholar
  7. Folio M. R., & Fewell, R. R. (2000). Peabody developmental motor scales examiner’s manual. (2nd ed.). Austin: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  8. Gillberg, C., Ehlers, S., Schaumann, H., Jakobsson, G., Dahlgren, S. O., Lindblom, R., Bagenhold, A., Tjuus, T., & Blidner, E. (1990). Autism under age 3 years: a clinical study of 28 cases referred for autistic symptoms in infancy. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 921–934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Green, D., Baird, G., Barnett, A. L., Henderson, L., Huber, J., & Henderson, S. E. (2002). The severity and nature of motor impairment in Asperger’s syndrome: a comparison with specific developmental disorder of motor function. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(5), 655–668.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Henderson S. E., & Sugden, D. A. (1992). The Movement Assessment Battery for Children. London: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  11. Koseck, K. (1999). Review and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the revised Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 11, 198–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Leary, M. R., & Hill, D. A. (1996). Moving on: autism and movement disturbance. Mental Retardation, 34, 39–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Manjiviona, J., & Prior, M. (1995). Comparison of Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autistic children on a test of motor impairment. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 23–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mari, M., Castiello, U., Marks, D., Marraffa, C., & Prior, M. (2003). The reach-to-grasp movement in children with autism spectrum disorder. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 358, 393–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mayes, S. D., & Calhoun, S. L. (2003). Ability profiles in children with autism: influence of age and IQ. Autism, 7, 65–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Miller, G. A., & Chapman, J. P. (2001). Misunderstanding analysis of covariance. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 40–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Miyahara, M., Tsujii, M., Hori, M., Nakanishi, K., Kageyama, H., & Sugiyama, T. (1997). Brief report: motor incoordination in children with Asperger syndrome and learning disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27, 595–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. National Institute of Mental Health, of the National Institutes of Health, of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Institute of Mental Health website 2004: www.nimh.nih.gov/healthinformation/autismmenu.cfm.Google Scholar
  19. Schmitz, C., Martineau, J., Barthelem, C., & Assaiante, C. (2003). Motor control and children with autism: deficit of anticipatory function?. Neuroscience Letters, 348(1), 17–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Teitelbaum, O., Benton, T., Shah, P. K., Prince, A., Kelly, J. L., & Teitelbaum, P. (2004). Eshkol-Wachman movement notation in diagnosis: the early detection of Asperger’s syndrome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 11909–11914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Teitelbaum, P., Teitelbaum, O., Nye, J., Fryman, J., & Maurer, R. G. (1998). Movement analysis in infancy may be useful for early diagnosis of autism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95, 13982–13987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Vilensky, J. A., Damasio, A. R., & Maurer, R. G. (1981). Gait disturbances in patients with autistic behavior: a preliminary study. Archives of Neurology, 38(10), 646–649.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beth Provost
    • 1
    • 3
  • Brian R. Lopez
    • 2
  • Sandra Heimerl
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedics and RehabilitationUniversity of New Mexico School of MedicineAlbuquerqueUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics, Center for Development and DisabilityUniversity of New Mexico School of MedicineAlbuquerqueUSA
  3. 3.Physical Therapy Program, MSC09 5230, Health Sciences Center1 University of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA

Personalised recommendations