A Comparison of Motor Delays in Young Children: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Developmental Concerns
- 5k Downloads
This study assessed motor delay in young children 21–41 months of age with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and compared motor scores in children with ASD to those of children without ASD. Fifty-six children (42 boys, 14 girls) were in three groups: children with ASD, children with developmental delay (DD), and children with developmental concerns without motor delay. Descriptive analysis showed all children with ASD had delays in gross motor skills, fine motor skills, or both. Children with ASD and children with DD showed significant impairments in motor development compared to children who had developmental concerns without motor delay. Motor scores of young children with ASD did not differ significantly on motor skill measures when compared to young children with DD.
KeywordsAutism Autism spectrum disorder Early childhood Developmental delay Motor delay Motor development
We would like to acknowledge all the families that participated in the current study and the assistance of Nae-Hwa Kim for her help. We would also like to acknowledge the Center for Development and Disability, the New Mexico Department of Health, and New Mexico Public Education Department for their support in completing the project.
- American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th ed.). Washington: Author.Google Scholar
- Bayley N. (1993). Bayley scales of infant development manual. (2nd ed.). San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Berkeley, S. L., Zittel, L. L., Pitney, L. V., & Nichols, S. E. (2001). Locomotor and object control skills of children diagnosed with autism. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 18, 405–416.Google Scholar
- Folio M. R., & Fewell, R. R. (2000). Peabody developmental motor scales examiner’s manual. (2nd ed.). Austin: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
- Gillberg, C., Ehlers, S., Schaumann, H., Jakobsson, G., Dahlgren, S. O., Lindblom, R., Bagenhold, A., Tjuus, T., & Blidner, E. (1990). Autism under age 3 years: a clinical study of 28 cases referred for autistic symptoms in infancy. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 921–934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Green, D., Baird, G., Barnett, A. L., Henderson, L., Huber, J., & Henderson, S. E. (2002). The severity and nature of motor impairment in Asperger’s syndrome: a comparison with specific developmental disorder of motor function. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(5), 655–668.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Henderson S. E., & Sugden, D. A. (1992). The Movement Assessment Battery for Children. London: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- National Institute of Mental Health, of the National Institutes of Health, of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Institute of Mental Health website 2004: www.nimh.nih.gov/healthinformation/autismmenu.cfm.Google Scholar
- Teitelbaum, O., Benton, T., Shah, P. K., Prince, A., Kelly, J. L., & Teitelbaum, P. (2004). Eshkol-Wachman movement notation in diagnosis: the early detection of Asperger’s syndrome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 11909–11914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar