Advertisement

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 36, Issue 7, pp 871–879 | Cite as

Health Care Utilization and Expenditures for Children with Autism: Data from U.S. National Samples

  • Gregory S. LiptakEmail author
  • Tami Stuart
  • Peggy Auinger
Original paper

 Abstract

Little is known about the use of medical services by children who have autism (ASD). Provide nationally representative data for health service utilization and expenditures of children with ASD. Cross-sectional survey using the Medical Expenditure Panel (MEPS), and National (Hospital) Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (N(H)AMCS). A total of 80 children with ASD were identified from N(H)AMCS (weighted sample size (wss) 186,281), and 31 (wss 340,158) from MEPS. They had more outpatient visits, physician visits, and medications prescribed than children in general. They spent more time during physician visits than other children. Annual expenses for children with autism spectrum disorder ($6,132) were more than for other children ($860). Children with ASD have a substantial burden of medical illness.

Keywords

Autistic disorder Health services Mental retardation Depressive disorder 

References

  1. Chambers, J. G., Shkolnik, J., & Perez, M. (2003). Total expenditures for students with disabilities, 1999--2000: Spending variation by disability. Special education expenditure project, pp. 1--16. United States Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, 12--30--2003.Google Scholar
  2. Cohen, S. B. (2000). Sample design of the 1997 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey household component. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.Google Scholar
  3. Coplan, J. (2003). Atypicality, intelligence, and age: a conceptual model of autistic spectrum disorder. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 45(10), 712--716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Curran, A. L., Sharples, P. M., White, C., & Knapp, M. (2001). Time costs of caring for children with severe disabilities compared with caring for children without disabilities. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 43(8), 529--533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Filipek, P. A., Accardo, P. J., Ashwal, S., Baranek, G. T., Cook, E. H., Jr., Dawson, G., Gordon, B., Gravel, J. S., Johnson, C. P., Kallen, R. J., Levy, S. E., Minshew, N. J., Ozonoff, S., Prizant, B. M., Rapin, I., Rogers, S. J., Stone, W. L., Teplin, S. W., Tuchman, R. F., & Volkmar, F. R. (2000). Practice parameter: screening and diagnosis of autism: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Child Neurology Society. Neurology, 55(4), 468--479.Google Scholar
  6. Fombonne, E. (2003). Epidemiological surveys of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders: an update. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 365--382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gillberg, C., & Billstedt, E. (2000). Autism and Asperger syndrome: Coexistence with other clinical disorders. Acta Psychiatrica et Neurologica Scandinivica, 102(5), 321--330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gross, J. (2004) As Autism cases rise, parents run frenzied race to get help. New York Times, January 30, 2004, http://www.nytimes.com/2004/01/30/nyregion/30AUTI.html. Retrieved 2/2/2004.Google Scholar
  9. Howlin, P., & Asgharian, A. (1999). The diagnosis of autism and Asperger syndrome: findings from a survey of 770 families. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 41(12), 834--839.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ireys, H. T., Anderson, G. F., Shaffer, T. J., & Neff, J. M. (1997). Expenditures for care of children with chronic illnesses enrolled in the Washington State Medicaid program, fiscal year 1993. Pediatrics, 100, 197--204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jacobson, J. W., & Mulick, J. A. (2000). System and cost research issues in treatments for people with autistic disorders. Journal of Autism and Development Disorders, 30(6), 585--593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jarbrink, K., & Knapp, M. (2001). The economic impact of autism in Britain. Autism, 5(1), 7--22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jarbrink, K., Fombonne, E., & Knapp, M. (2003). Measuring the parental, service and cost impacts of children with autistic spectrum disorder: a pilot study. Journal of Autism Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 395--402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnson, E., & Hastings, R. P. (2002). Facilitating factors and barriers to the implementation of intensive home-based behavioural intervention for young children with autism. Child Care Health and Development, 28(2), 123--129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Koppelman, J. (2004). Children with mental disorders: Making sense of their needs and the systems that help them. NHPF Issue Brief, 4, 1--24.Google Scholar
  16. Krauss, M. W., Gulley, S., Sciegaj, M., & Wells, N. (2003). Access to specialty medical care for children with mental retardation, autism, and other special health care needs. Mental Retardation, 41(5), 329--339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kuhlthau, K. A., Beal, A. C., Ferris, T. G., & Perrin, J. M. (2002). Comparing a diagnosis list with a survey method to identify children with chronic conditions in an urban health center. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 2(1), 58--62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Landrigan, P. J., Schechter, C. B., Lipton, J. M., Fahs, M. C. & Schwartz, J. (2002). Environmental Pollutants and Disease in American Children: Estimates of Morbidity, Mortality, and Costs for Lead Poisoning, Asthma, Cancer, and Developmental Disabilities. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110(7), 721--728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Leonard, H., & Wen, X. (2002). The epidemiology of mental retardation: challenges and opportunities in the new millennium. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 8(3), 117--134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., & Risi, S. (1999). Autism diagnostic observation schedule-WPS (WPS ed.). LosAngeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  21. McCall, C. J. (2003) Improving outcomes and reducing cost: the role of predictive modeling. Managed Care, 12(10 Suppl), 12--16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. McCracken, J. T., McGough, J., Shah, B., Cronin, P., Hong, D., Aman, M. G., Arnold, L. E., Lindsay, R., Nash, P., Hollway, J., McDougle, C. J., Posey, D., Swiezy, N., Kohn, A., Scahill, L., Martin, A., Koenig, K., Volkmar, F., Carroll, D., Lancor, A., Tierney, E., Ghuman, J., Gonzalez, N. M., Grados, M., Vitiello, B., Ritz, L., Davies, M., Robinson, J., & McMahon, D. (2002). Risperidone in children with autism and serious behavioral problems. The New England Journal of Medicine, 347(5), 314--321.Google Scholar
  23. Murphy, C. C., Yeargin-Allsopp, M., Decoufle, P., & Drews, C. D. (1995). The administrative prevalence of mental retardation in 10-year-old children in metropolitan Atlanta, 1985 through 1987. American Journal of Public Health, 85(3), 319--23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. National Center for Health Statistics (2004a). Ambulatory health care data. Ambulatory Care statistics branch. http://www.cdc.gov/namcs/ Retrieved 2-1-2004.Google Scholar
  25. National Center for Health Statistics (2004b). Welcome NHAMCS participants! Ambulatory care statistics branch. 2004b. http://www.cdc.gov/nhamcs/ Retrieved 2-1-2004.Google Scholar
  26. Ryan, S. A., Auinger, P., Liptak, G. S., Dick, A. W., Shone, L., Klein, J. D., & Szilagyi, P. G. (2006). Trends in health care expenditures and utilization for children with special health care needs: Analysis of the 1996 and 1999 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Public Health Reports, Submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  27. Shah, B. V., Barnwell, R. C., & Bieler, G. S. (1997). SUDAAN User’s Manual (release 7.5). Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute.Google Scholar
  28. Sturm, H., Fernell, E., & Gillberg, C. (2004). Autism spectrum disorders in children with normal intellectual levels: associated impairments and subgroups. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 46(7), 444--447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yeargin-Allsopp, M., Rice, C., Karapurkar, T., Doernberg, N., Boyle, C., & Murphy, C. (2003). Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area. JAMA, 289(1), 49--55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ziring, P. R., Brazdziunas, D., Cooley, W. C., Kastner, T. A., Kummer, M. E., Gonzalez, d. P., Quint, R. D., Ruppert, E. S., Sandler, A. D., Anderson, W. C., Arango, P., Burgan, P., Garner, C., McPherson, M., Michaud, L., Yeargin-Allsopp, M., Johnson, C. P., Wheeler, L. S., Nackashi, J., & Perrin, J. M. (1999). American academy of pediatrics. Committee on children with disabilities. Care coordination: integrating health and related systems of care for children with special health care needs. Pediatrics, 104(4 Pt 1), 978--981.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory S. Liptak
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tami Stuart
    • 1
  • Peggy Auinger
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Rochester Medical CenterRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations