Advertisement

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 499–513 | Cite as

The PDD-MRS: An Instrument for Identification of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Persons with Mental Retardation

  • Dirk Kraijer
  • Annelies de  Bildt
Article

Abstract

The Scale of Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Mentally Retarded Persons (PDD-MRS) is described. The PDD-MRS is a simple classification and screening instrument devised for identification of autistic disorders (of the entire spectrum) in persons with mental retardation from mild to profound levels, age-range 2–55 years. The norms of the scale are based on the research protocols of 1230 Dutch persons with mental retardation. The scale’s sensitivity for the entire normative sample was found to be 92.4%; calculated separately for persons at all levels of mentally retarded functioning, male and female persons, speaking and non-speaking persons and five age categories, the sensitivity figures range between 87.0 and 100.0%. The specificity of the scale is also 92.4%; for the aforementioned subgroups separately, the specificity figures range between 84.6 and 95.5%. Roughly similar values for sensitivity and specificity were found when using the scale with severely visually impaired/blind persons; severely hearing-impaired/deaf persons; persons with Down syndrome; male persons with fragile X syndrome. The original version of the PDD-MRS dates from 1990; since then the scale has been widely used in the Netherlands and Belgium. The PDD-MRS should be regarded as a useful instrument for identifying PDD in persons with mental retardation.

Keywords

Autism mental retardation differential diagnosis PDD-MRS 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adrien, J. L., Ornitz, E., Barthelemy, C.,  et al. 1987The presence or absence of certain behaviors associated with infantile autism in severely retarded autistic and nonautistic retarded children and very young normal childrenJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders17407416CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association,  1987Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (3rd ed.) - Revised, DSM-III-RAPAWashingtonGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association,  1994Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (4th ed.) DSM-IVAPAWashingtonGoogle Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association,  2000Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (4th ed.) Text Revision. DSM-IV-TRAPAWashingtonGoogle Scholar
  5. Berkson, G., Davenport, R. K.,Jr. 1962Stereotyped movements of mental defectivesI & Initial surveyAmerican Journal of Mental Deficiency66849852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Berument, S. K., Rutter, M., Lord, C., Pickles, A., Bailey, A. 2000Autism Screening Questionnaire: diagnostic validityBritish Journal of Psychiatry175444451Google Scholar
  7. Bodfish, J. W., Crawford, T. W., Powell, S. B., Parker, D. E., Golden, R. N., Lewis, M. H. 1995Compulsions in adults with mental retardation: prevalence, phenomenology, and comorbidity with stereotypy and self-injuryAmerican Journal on Mental Retardation100183192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Buitelaar, J. K., Gaag, R., vander, , van der Klin, A., Volkmar, F. 1999Exploring the boundaries of Pervasive Developmental Disorders Not Otherwise Specified: analyses of data from the DSM-IV Autistic Disorder field trialJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders293343CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cicchetti, D.V., Sparrow, S.S. 1981Developing criteria for establishing interrater reliability of specific items in a given inventoryAmerican Journal of Mental Deficiency86127137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen, D. J., Donnellan, A. M. 1987Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental DisordersWiley and SonsNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. De Bildt, A. A. (2003). The Friesland study. Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Mental Retardation. Groningen: ThesisGoogle Scholar
  12. De Bildt, A., Sytema, S., Ketelaars, C., Kraijer, D., Volkmar, F., Minderaa, R. 2003Measuring Pervasive Developmental Disorders in mentally retarded children and adolescents. A comparison of two screening instruments used in a study of the total MR-population from a designated areaJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,33595605Google Scholar
  13. De Bildt, A., Sytema, S., Kraijer, D., Ketelaars, C., Volkmar, F., Minderaa, R. 2004The interrelationship between ADOS-G, ADI-R and DSM-IV-TR classification in children and adolescents with mental retardationJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders34129137CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bildt, A., Sytema, S., Kraijer, D., Minderaa, R. 2005Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in children and adolescents with mental retardationJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry46275286CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Deb, S., Prasad, K.B.G. 1994The prevalence of Autistic Disorder among children with a learning disabilityBritish Journal of Psychiatry165395399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Dykens, E. M., Hodapp, R. M., Finucane, B. M. 2000Genetics and mental retardation syndromes. A new look at behavior and interventionsBrookesBaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  17. Filipek, P. A., Accardo, P. J., Baranek, G. T., Cook, E. H., Dawson, G., Gordon, B,  et al. 1999The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disordersJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders29439484CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gillberg, C., Persson, E., Grufman, M., Themner, U. 1986Psychiatric Disorders in Mildly and Severely Mentally Retarded Urban Children and Adolescents: Epidemiological AspectsBritish Journal of Psychiatry1496874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hoekman, J. 1993Autisme en verstandelijke handicap: het gebruik van de AUTI-R-schaal bij differentiaaldiagnostiek (Autism and mental retardation: the AUTI-R and differential diagnostics)Tijdschrift Orthopedagogiek, Kinderpsychiatrie en Klinische Kinderpsychologie181223Google Scholar
  20. Kau, A. S. M., Reider, E. E., Payne, L., Meijer, W. A., Freund, L. 2000Early behavior signs of psychiatric phenotypes in fragile X syndromeAmerican Journal on Mental Retardation105286299CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kraijer, D.W. 1990AVZ, Autisme- en Verwante kontaktstoornissenschaal voor Zwakzinnigen. Handleiding (Autism and related contact disorders scale for the mentally retarded. Manual)Swets and ZeitlingerLisse, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  22. Kraijer, D.W. 1991Zwakzinnigheid, autisme en aan autisme verwante stoornissen (Mental retardation, autism and autistic-like conditions)Swets and ZeitlingerLisse, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  23. Kraijer, D.W. 1994AVZ-R, Autisme- en Verwante stoornissenschaal voor Zwakzinnigen-Revisie. Handleiding. Sterk herziene en uitgebreide uitgave (Autism and related disorders scale for the mentally retarded-Revision. Manual. Second revised edition)Swets and ZeitlingerLisse, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  24. Kraijer, D.W. 1995Pervasieve ontwikkelingsstoornissen bij mensen met het syndroom van Down (Pervasive developmental disorders in Down syndrome)Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Zorg aan verstandelijk gehandicapten21164178Google Scholar
  25. Kraijer, D.W. 1996aPervasieve ontwikkelingsstoornissen bij mannen met het fragiele-X syndroom (Pervasive developmental disorders in males with fragile X syndrome)Tijdschrift Orthopedagogiek, Kinderpsychiatrie en Klinische Kinderpsychologie217381Google Scholar
  26. Kraijer, D. W. 1996bRisicofactoren voor het vertonen van automutilatie (Risk factors for exhibiting self-injurious behavior)Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Zorg aan verstandelijk gehandicapten22248263Google Scholar
  27. Kraijer, D.W. 1997aAutism and autistic-like conditions in mental retardationTaylor & FrancisAndover, UKGoogle Scholar
  28. Kraijer, D.W. 1997bPDD-MRS-formTaylor & FrancisAndover, UKGoogle Scholar
  29. Kraijer, D. W. 1997cPervasieve ontwikkelingsstoornissen bij niet-ambulante, zeer diep zwakzinnige mensen (Pervasive developmental disorders in non-ambulatory, very profoundly mentally retarded persons)Tijdschrift voor Orthopedagogiek, Kinderpsychiatrie en Klinische Kinderpsychologie224861Google Scholar
  30. Kraijer, D.W. 2004Autismespectrvmstoornissen en verstandelijke beperking. Ontwikkelingsstoornis en ontwikkelingstekort (Autism spectrum disorders and mental retardation)HarcourtAmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  31. Kraijer, D.W. 1999AVZ-R, Autisme- en Verwante stoornissenschaal-Z-Revisie. Handleiding. Derde, herziene en uitgebreide uitgave (Autism and related disorders scale for the mentally retarded-Revision. Manual3Swets and ZeitlingerLisse, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  32. Kraijer, D. W. 2000Niet spreken, autistische stoornissen en verstandelijke beperking (Non-speaking, pervasive developmental disorder and mental retardation)Tijdschrift voor Orthopedagogiek, Kinderpsychiatrie en Klinische Kinderpsychologie25136144Google Scholar
  33. Kraijer, D. W. 2001Autismespectrumstoornissen bij personen met een verstandelijke en een visuele beperking (Autism spectrum disorders in persons with mental retardation and blindness/severe visual impairment)Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Zorg aan verstandelijk gehandicapten27105122Google Scholar
  34. Kraijer, D.W., Kraijer, D.W. 2003SEAS-M. Skala zur Erfassung von Autismusspektrumstörungen bei MinderbegabtenHarcourtFrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  35. Krug, D., Arick, J.R., Almond, P.J. 1980Autism screening instrument for educational planningASIEP Ed. CoPortland, OregonGoogle Scholar
  36. La Malfa, G., Lassi, S., Bertelli, M., Salvini, R., Placidi, G. 2004Autism and intellectual disability: a study of prevalence on a sample of the Italian populationJournal of Intellectual Disability Research48262267CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Lord, C. 1995Follow-up of two-year-olds referred for possible autismJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry3613651382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E.H., Leventhal, B.L., DiLavore, P.C., Pickles, A., Rutter, M. 2000The Autism Observation Schedule-Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autismJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders30205223CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P.C., S., Risi 1980Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-GenericDep. of Psychiatry, University of ChicagoChicago, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  40. Lord, C., Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A. 1994Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible Pervasive Developmental DisordersJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders24659685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Maisto, C. R., Baumeister, A. A., Maisto, A. A. 1978An analysis of variables related to self-injurious behaviour among institutionalised retarded personsJournal of Mental Deficiency Research222736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Mazzocco, M.M.M., Pulsifer, M., Fiumara, A., Cocuzza, M., Nigro, F., Incorpora, G., Barone, R. 1998Brief report: autistic behaviors among children with fragile X or Rett syndrome: implications for the classification of Pervasive Developmental DisorderJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders28321328CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Mesibov, G.B., Schopler, E., Schaffer, B., Michel, N. 1989Use of the Childhood Autism Rating scale with autistic adolescents and adultsJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry28538541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Miranda-Linné, F.M., Melin, L. 1997A comparison of speaking and mute individuals with autism and autistic-like conditions on the Autism Behavior ChecklistJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders27245264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Morgan, C.N., Roy, M., Nasr, A., Chance, P., Hand, M., Meele, T., Roy, A. 2002A community survey establishing the prevalence rate of autistic disorder in adults with learning disabilityPsychiatric Bulletin26127130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nederlands Instituut van Psychologen1995Aanvulling Documentatie van tests en testresearch in NederlandVan Gorcum/NIPAssenGoogle Scholar
  47. Nordin, V., Gillberg, C. 1996Autism spectrum disorders in children with physical or mental disability or both I: Clinical and epidemiological aspectsDevelopmental Medicine and Child Neurology38297313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Poustka, F., Lisch, S., Rühl, D., Sacher, A., Schmötzer, G., Werner, K. 1996The standardized diagnosis of autism, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: interrater reliability of the German form of the interviewPsychopathology29145153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Reiss, S. A., Levitan, G. W., Szyszko, J. 1982Emotional disturbances and mental retardation: Diagnostic overshadowingAmerican Journal of MentalDeficiency, 86567574Google Scholar
  50. Ruttenberg, B.A., Kalish, B.I., Wener, Ch.,  et al. 1977BRIAAC, Behavior Rating instrument for Autistic and other Atypical ChildrenSwets and ZeitlingerLisseGoogle Scholar
  51. Rutter, M., Schopler, E. 1987Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Concepts and Diagnostic IssuesJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders17159186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Schopler, E., Reichler, R.J., Renner, B.R. 1986The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for diagnostic screening and classification of autismIrvington Publishers INCNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  53. Siegel, B 1996The world of the autistic child. Understanding and treating autistic spectrum disordersOxford University PressNew York/OxfordGoogle Scholar
  54. Teal, M.B., Wiebe, M.J. 1986A Validity Analysis of Selected Instruments Used to Assess AutismJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders16485494CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Berckelaer-Onnes, I.A., Harinck, F.J.H., Smit, M. 1981AUTI-schaal. Handleiding en verantwoording (AUTI scale. Manual and theoretical background)Swets and ZeitlingerLisseGoogle Scholar
  56. Berckelaer-Onnes, I.A., Hoekman, J. 1991AUTI-R-schaal. Handleiding en verantwoording (AUTI-R scale. Manual and theoretical background)Swets and ZeitlingerLisseGoogle Scholar
  57. Vela, M.D., Gottlieb, E.H., Gottlieb, H.P. 1983 Borderline Syndromes in Childhood. A critical reviewRobson, K.S. eds. Borderline ChildMcGraw-HillNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Vig, S., Jedrysek, E. 1999Autistic features in young children with significant cognitive impairment: autism or mental retardation?Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders29235248CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Waller, S.A., Armstrong, K.J., McGrath, A.M., Sullivan, C.L. 1999A review of the diagnostic methods reported in the Journal of Autism and Developmental DisordersJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders29485490CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Wing, L., Gould, J. 1979Severe Impairments of social Interactions and Associated Abnormalities in Children: Epidemiology and ClassificationJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders91129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. World Health Organization1992The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelinesWHOGenevaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dirk Kraijer
    • 1
  • Annelies de  Bildt
    • 2
  1. 1.Stichting Hendrik van BoeijenRA ASSENThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University of GroningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations