Is There a ‘Regressive Phenotype’ of Autism Spectrum Disorder Associated with the Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine? A CPEA Study
- 1.6k Downloads
A multi-site study of 351 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 31 typically developing children used caregiver interviews to describe the children’s early acquisition and loss of social-communication milestones. For the majority of children with ASD who had experienced a regression, pre-loss development was clearly atypical. Children who had lost skills also showed slightly poorer outcomes in verbal IQ and social reciprocity, a later mean age of onset of autistic symptoms, and more gastrointestinal symptoms than children with ASD and no regression. There was no evidence that onset of autistic symptoms or of regression was related to measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. The implications of these findings for the existence of a ‘regressive phenotype’ of ASD are discussed.
KeywordsAutism spectrum disorder language development regression Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised (ADI-R) measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine gastrointestinal disorders
The authors wish to acknowledge the participation of the families in all sites in the Collaborative Programs for Excellence in Autism (CPEA), supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the National Institute for Deafness and Communication Disorders (NIDCD), particularly HD 35482 to the last author. The help of Colleen Hall, Kathryn Larson, Gwendolyn Young, Deborah Anderson, Matthew Brown, Amanda Edgell, Kaite Gotham, Daniel Karstofsky, Adrienne Lomangino, Margaret Kim, Jennifer Cooper, Amanda Taylor, Angela Fish, Norma Harary, Andrew Pickles, and Efi Sichondis is also gratefully acknowledged.
- Cooper J., Kim P., Taylor A., Lord C., (2001). Early communication and social skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders, with and without early word loss Paper presented at the International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR), San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
- Deykin E. Y., MacMahon G., (1980). Pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal complications among autistic childrenAmerican Journal of Disease of Children 134: 860–864Google Scholar
- Elliott C. D., (1990). Differential ability scales: Introductory and technical handbook. New York: The Psychological CorporationGoogle Scholar
- Fenson L., (1989). The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory: Infant and Toddler Versions. San Diego: San Diego State UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Finegan, J. A., & Quarrington, B. (1979). Pre-, peri-, and neonatal factors and infantile autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 20(2),119–128Google Scholar
- Molloy, C. A., Dawson, G., Dunn, M., Hyman, S. L., McMahon, W. M., & Minshew, N., et al. (in press). Familial autoimmune thyroid disease as a risk factor for regression in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Google Scholar
- Mullen E., (1995). The Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance ServiceGoogle Scholar
- Sparrow S. S., Balla D. A., Cicchetti D. V., (1984). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance ServiceGoogle Scholar
- Stiles, J. (1994). On the nature of informant judgements in inventory measures...and so what is it you want to know? In Monographs for the Society for Research on Child Development (Vol. 59, pp. 180–185). Chicago: Univ. of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
- Werner, E., Dawson, G., Munson, J., & Osterling, J. (2005). Variation in early developmental course in autism and its relation with behavioral outcome at 3–4 years of age. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders,35(3), 337–350Google Scholar