Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 263–270 | Cite as

The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in Japan: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

  • Akio WakabayashiEmail author
  • Simon Baron-Cohen
  • Sally Wheelwright
  • Yoshikuni Tojo


The AQ (Autism-Spectrum Quotient) is a self-administered instrument for measuring the degree to which an adult with normal intelligence has the traits associated with the autistic spectrum. The AQ was administered in Japan to test whether the UK results would generalize to a very different culture. Three groups of subjects, adults with AS or HFA (n=57), adult controls (n=194), and University students (n=1050) were assessed. The adults with AS/HFA had a mean AQ score which was significantly higher than both the controls and the University students. Among the controls, males scored significantly higher than females. The similarity of results in both the general population and the clinical group across the two cultures was remarkable.


Autism spectrum quotient Asperger syndrome high-functioning autism normal intelligence adults with autism self-administered 



SBC and SW were supported by a grant from the MRC during the period of this work. We are grateful to the individuals with high-functioning autism and Asperger Syndrome and their parents for their participation. Finally, we thank Professors K Narita, S Tsukamoto, H Yamada, and Mr. A Senju for their help with data collection.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akio Wakabayashi
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Simon Baron-Cohen
    • 2
  • Sally Wheelwright
    • 2
  • Yoshikuni Tojo
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyChiba UniversityInage, ChibaJapan
  2. 2.Departments of Psychiatry, Autism Research CentreUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  3. 3.Section of Education for Children with AutismThe National Institute of Special Education TokyoJapan
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyChiba UniversityInage, ChibaJapan

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