ADHD Symptom Subtypes in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder
- 1.1k Downloads
Compares DSM-IV ADHD subtypes in large samples of 3-to-5 and 6-to-12 year old children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) vs. nonPDD clinic referrals.
Parents and teachers completed a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale.
ADHD subtypes were clearly differentiated from the nonADHD group and showed a differential pattern of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms (more pronounced for teacher- than parent-defined subtypes and older than younger children) that was similar in both PDD and nonPDD samples. The Combined type had more severe oppositional, aggressive, and PDD symptoms than Inattentive type and were from less advantaged homes than other subtypes. Hyperactive-Impulsive type was least impaired.
Findings support the notion that ADHD may be a clinically meaningful syndrome in children with PDD.
KeywordsAutism Asperger syndrome PDDNOS pervasive developmental disorder attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder oppositional defiant disorder DSM-IV diagnosis
The authors wish to thank Dr. Joseph Schwartz for his assistance with data analyses. This study was supported, in part, by a grant from the Matt and Debra Cody Center for Autism and Developmental Disorders.
- Achenbach T. M., (1991a). Manual for the child behavior checklist/4-18 and 1991 profile University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry Burlington, VTGoogle Scholar
- Achenbach T. M., (1991b). Manual for the teacher’s report form and 1991 profile University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry Burlington, VTGoogle Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed., (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric AssociationGoogle Scholar
- Drabick, D. A. G., Gadow, K. D., Carlson, G. A., & Bromet, E. J. (2004). ODD and ADHD symptoms in Ukrainian children: External validators and comorbidity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Google Scholar
- Faraone S. V., Biederman J., Weber W., Russell R. L., (1998). Psychiatric, neuropsychological, and psychosocial features of DSM-IV subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Results from a clinically referred sample Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 37: 185–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gadow K. D., DeVincent C., Pomeroy J., Azizian A., (2004a). Psychiatric symptoms in preschool children with PDD and clinic and comparison samples Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34Google Scholar
- Gadow K. D., Drabick D. A. G., Loney J., Sprafkin J., Salisbury H., Azizian A., Schwartz J., (2004b). Comparison of ADHD symptom subtypes as source-specific syndromes Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry 43:735–743Google Scholar
- Gadow K. D., Sprafkin J., (1997). Early childhood symptom inventory-4 norms manual Checkmate Plus Stony Brook, NYGoogle Scholar
- Gadow K. D., Sprafkin J., (2000). Early childhood symptom inventory-4 screening manual. Checkmate Plus Stony Brook, NYGoogle Scholar
- Gadow K. D., Sprafkin J., (2002). Child Symptom Inventory-4 screening and norms manual. Checkmate Plus Stony Brook, NYGoogle Scholar
- Gillott A., Furniss F., Walter A., (2001). Anxiety in high-functioning children with autism Autism 4:117–132Google Scholar
- Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. New Haven, CT: Department of Sociology, Yale UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Kupfer, D. J., First, M. B., & Regier, D. A. (Eds.). (2002). A research agenda for DSM-V. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric AssociationGoogle Scholar
- Lahey B. B., Applegate B., McBurnett K., Biederman J., Greenhill L., Hynd G. W., Barkley R. A., Newcorn J., Jensen P., Richters J., Garfinkel B., Kerdyk L., Frick P. J., Ollendick T., Perez D., Hart E., Waldman I., Shaffer D., (1994). DSM-IV field trials for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents American Journal of Psychiatry 152:1673–1685Google Scholar
- Lord C., Risi S., Lambrecht L., Cook E. H. Jr., Leventhal B. L., DiLavore P. C., Pickles A., Rutter M., (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 30:205–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Loveland K. A., Tunali-Kotoski B., (1997). The school-age child with autism. In Cohen D. J., Volkmar F. R., (eds). Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (2nd. Ed), Wiley, New York, 283–308Google Scholar
- Loney J., Milich R., (1982). Hyperactivity, inattention, and aggression in clinical practice. In Wolraich M., Routh D. L., (eds.), Advances in developmental and behavioral pediatrics Vol. 3 JAI Press Greenwich, CT, 113–147Google Scholar
- Pearson D. A., Lachar D., Loveland K. A., Santos C. W., Faria L. P., Azzam P. N., Hentges B. A., Cleveland L. A., (2000). Patterns of behavioral adjustment and maladjustment in mental retardation: Comparison of children with and without ADHD American Journal of Mental Retardation 105:236–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pearson D. A., Santos C. W., Roache J. D., Casat C. D., Loveland K. A., Lachar D., Lane D. M., Faria L. P., Cleveland L. A., (2003). Treatment effects of methylphenidate on behavioral adjustment in children with mental retardation and ADHD Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 42:209–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sprafkin J., Gadow K. D., Salisbury H., Schneider J., Loney J., (2002a). Further evidence of reliability and validity of the Child Symptom Inventory-4: Parent Checklist in clinically referred boys Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 31:513–524Google Scholar
- Whalen C. K., Collins B. E., Henker B., Alkus S. R., Adams D., Stapp S., (1978). Behavior observations of hyperactive children and methylphenidate (Ritalin) effects in systematically structured classroom environments: Now you see them, now you don’t Journal of Pediatric Psychology 3:177–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wozniak J., Biederman J., Faraone S. V., Frazier J., Kim J., Millstein R., Gershon J., Thornell A., Cha K., Snyder J. B., (1997). Mania in children with pervasive developmental disorder revisited Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36:1552–1559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar