Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 91–106 | Cite as

Impaired Face Processing in Autism: Fact or Artifact?

  • Boutheina Jemel
  • Laurent Mottron
  • Michelle Dawson
Article

Within the last 10 years, there has been an upsurge of interest in face processing abilities in autism which has generated a proliferation of new empirical demonstrations employing a variety of measuring techniques. Observably atypical social behaviors early in the development of children with autism have led to the contention that autism is a condition where the processing of social information, particularly faces, is impaired. While several empirical sources of evidence lend support to this hypothesis, others suggest that there are conditions under which autistic individuals do not differ from typically developing persons. The present paper reviews this bulk of empirical evidence, and concludes that the versatility and abilities of face processing in persons with autism have been underestimated.

Keywords

Autism face processing FFA configural local bias 

References

  1. Adolphs R., Sears L., Piven J., (2001). Abnormal processing of social information from faces in autism Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13: 232–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adolphs R., Tranel D., Damasio H., Damasio A. R., (1994). Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the human amygdala Nature 372: 669–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Akhtari M., Bryant H. C., Mamelak A. N., Flynn E. R., Heller L., Shih J. J., Mandelkern M., Matlachov A., Ranken D. M., Best E. D., Di Mauro M. A., Lee R. R., Sutherling W. W., (2002). Conductivities of three layer live human skull Brain Topography 14: 151–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bailey A. J., Braeutigam S., Jousmaki V., Swithenby S. J., (2005). Abnormal activation of face processing systems at early and intermediate latency in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: A magnetoencephalographic study European Journal of Neuroscience 21: 2575–2585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Banks M., Salapatek P., (1981). Infant pattern vision: A new approach based on the contrast sensory function Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 31: 1–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baron-Cohen S., Ring H. A., Bullmore E. T., Wheelwright S., Ashwin C., Williams S. C. R., (2000). The amygdala theory of autism Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 24: 355–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baron-Cohen S., Ring H. A., Wheelwright S., Bullmore E. T., Brammer M. J., Simmons A., Williams S. C., (1999). Social intelligence in the normal and autistic brain: An fMRI study European Journal of Neuroscience 11: 1891–1898PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baron-Cohen S., Spitz A., Cross P., (1993). Can children with autism recognize surprise? Cognition and Emotion 7: 507–516Google Scholar
  9. Baron-Cohen S., Wheelwright S., Jolliffe T., (1997). Is there a “Language of the Eyes”? Evidence from normal adults, and adults with autism or Asperger syndrome Visual Cognition 4: 311–331Google Scholar
  10. Barton J. J., Cherkasova M. V., Hefter R., Cox T. A., O’Connor M., Manoach D. S., (2004). Are patients with social developmental disorders prosopagnosic? Perceptual heterogeneity in the Asperger and socio-emotional processing disorders Brain 127: 1706–1716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Batty M., Taylor M. J., (2003). Early processing of the six basic facial emotional expressions Cognitive Brain Research 17: 613–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Behrmann M., Avidan G., Leonard G. L., Kimchi R., Luna B., Humphreys K., Minshew, N. (2006). Configural processing in autism and its relationship to face processing. Neuropsychologia 44: 110–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bentin S., Deouell L. Y., (2000). Structural encoding and identification in face processing: ERP evidence for separate mechanisms Cognitive Neuropsychology 17: 35–54Google Scholar
  14. Bentin S., Allison T., Puce A., Perez E., McCarthy G., (1996). Electrophysiological studies of face perception in humans Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 8: 551–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bötzel K., Schulze S., Stodieck S. R. G., (1995). Scalp topography and analysis of intracranial sources of face-evoked potentials Experimental Brain Research 104: 134–143Google Scholar
  16. Boucher J., Lewis V., (1992). Unfamiliar face recognition in relatively able autistic children Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 33: 843–859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Boucher J., Lewis V., Collis G., (1998). Familiar face and voice matching and recognition in children with autism Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 39: 171–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brace N. A., Hole G. J., Kemp R. I., Pike G. E., Van Duuren M., Norgate L., (2001). Developmental changes in the effect of inversion: Using a picture book to investigate face recognition Perception 30: 85–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Braverman M., Fein D., Lucci D., Waterhouse L., (1989). Affect comprehension in children with pervasive developmental disorders Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 19: 301–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Breiter H. C., Etcoff N. L., Whalen P. J., Kennedy W. A., Rauch S. L., Buckner R. L., Strauss M. M., Hyman S. E., Rosen B. R., (1996). Response and habituation of the human amygdala during visual processing of facial expression Neuron 17: 875–887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Carey S., Diamond R., (1977). From piecemeal to configurational representation of faces Science 195: 312–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Carmel D., Bentin S., (2002). Domain specificity versus expertise: Factors influencing distinct processing of faces Cognition 83: 1–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cassia V. M., Turati C., Simion F., (2004). Can a nonspecific bias toward top-heavy patterns explain newborns’ face preference? Psychological Science 15: 379–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Castelli F., (2005). Understanding emotions from standardized facial expressions in autism and normal development Autism 9: 428–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cauquil Séverac A., Edmonds G. E., Taylor M. J., (2000). Is the face-sensitive N170 the only ERP not affected by selective attention? NeuroReport 11: 2167–2171Google Scholar
  26. Celani G., Battacchi M. W., Arcidiacono L., (1999). The understanding of the emotional meaning of facial expressions in people with autism Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 29: 57–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chauveau N., Franceries X., Doyon B., Rigaud B., Morucci J. P., Celsis P., (2004). Effects of skull thickness, anisotropy, and inhomogeneity on forward EEG/ERP computations using a spherical three-dimensional resistor mesh model Human Brain Mapping 21: 86–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cosmelli D., David O., Lachaux J.-P., Martinerie J., Garnero L., Renault B., Varela F., (2004). Waves of consciousness: Ongoing cortical patterns during binocular rivalry NeuroImage 23: 128–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Critchley H. D., Daly E. M., Bullmore E. T., Williams S. C., Van Amelsvoort T., Robertson D. M., Rowe A., Phillips M., McAlonan G., Howlin P., Murphy D. G., (2000). The functional neuroanatomy of social behaviour: Changes in cerebral blood flow when people with autistic disorder process facial expressions Brain 123: 2203–2212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dalton K. M., Nacewicz B. M., Johnstone T., Schaefer H. S., Gernsbacher M. A., Goldsmith H. H., Alexander A. L., Davidson R. J., (2005). Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism Nature Neuroscience 8: 519–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Damasio A. R., Tranel D., Damasio H., (1990). Face agnosia and the neural substrates of memory Annual Review of Neuroscience 13: 89–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Davies S., Bishop D., Manstead A. S. R., Tantam D., (1994). Face perception in children with autism and Asperger syndrome Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 35: 1033–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dawson G., Carver L., Meltzoff A., Panagiotides H., McPartland J., Webb S., (2002). Neural correlates of face and object recognition in young children with autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, and typical development Child Development 73: 700–717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dawson G., Webb S. J., McPartland J., (2005). Understanding the nature of face processing impairment in autism: Insights from behavioral and electrophysiological studies Development Neuropsychology 27: 403–424Google Scholar
  35. Dawson G., Webb S. J., Carver L., Panagiotides H., McPartland J., (2004). Young children with autism show atypical brain responses to fearful versus neutral facial expressions of emotion Development Science 7: 340–359Google Scholar
  36. de Haan M., Nelson C. A., (1997). Recognition of the mother’s face by six-month-old infants: A neurobehavioral study Child Development 68: 187–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. de Haan M., Pascalis O., Johnson M. H., (2002). Specialization of neural mechanisms underlying face recognition in human infants Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 14: 199–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. De Renzi E., (1986). Current issues on Prosopagnosia In H. D. Ellis, M. A. Jeeves, F. Newcombe, A. W. Young, (Eds.), Aspects of face processingMartinus Nijhoff Dordrecht (pp. 243–252)Google Scholar
  39. Deruelle C., Rondan C., Gepner B., Tardif C., (2004). Spatial frequency and face processing in children with autism and Asperger syndrome Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 34: 199–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Diamond R., Carey S., (1986). Why faces are and are not special: An effect of expertise Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115: 107–117Google Scholar
  41. Eimer M., (2000). Event-related brain potentials distinguish processing stages involved in face perception and recognition Clinical Neurophysiology 111: 694–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Ellis H. D., Young A. W., (1998). Faces in their social and biological context In A. W. Young, (Ed.), Face and mind Oxford University Press: New York (pp. 67–95)Google Scholar
  43. Farah M. J., Wilson A. F. W., Drain M., Tanaka J. N., (1998). What is “special” about face perception? Psychological Review 105: 482–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Farah M. J., Wilson K. D., Drain M., Tanaka J. N., (1995). The inverted face inversion effect in prosopagnosia: Evidence for mandatory, face-specific perceptual mechanisms Vision Research 35: 2089–2093PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Freire A., Lee K., Symons L. A., (2000). The face-inversion effect as a deficit in the encoding of configural information: Direct evidence Perception 29: 159–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gauthier I., Tarr M. J., (2002). Unraveling mechanisms for expert object recognition: Bridging brain activity and behavior Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 28: 431–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gauthier I., Skudlarski P., Gore J. C., Anderson A. W., (2000). Expertise for cars and birds recruits brain areas involved in face recognition Nature Neuroscience 3: 191–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gauthier I., Tarr M. J., Anderson A. W., Skudlarski P., Gore J. C., (1999). Activation of the middle fusiform ‘face area’ increases with expertise in recognizing novel objects Nature Neuroscience 2: 568–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. George N., Evans J., Fiori N., Davidoff J., Renault B., (1996). Brain events related to normal and moderately scrambled faces Cognitive Brain Research 4: 65–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gepner B., de Gelder B., de Schonen S., (1996). Face processing in autistics: Evidence for a generalized deficit? Child Neuropsychology 2: 123–139Google Scholar
  51. Gepner B., Deruelle C., Grynfeltt S., (2001). Motion and emotion: A novel approach to the study of face processing by young autistic children Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 31: 37–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Goren C., Sarty M., Wu P., (1975). Visual following and pattern discrimination of face-like stimuli by newborn infants Pediatrics 56: 544–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gorno-Tempini M. L., Price C. J., (2001). Identification of famous faces and buildings: A functional neuroimaging study of semantically unique items Brain 124: 2087–2097PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gorno-Tempini M. L., Price C. J., Josephs O., Vandenberghe R., Cappa S. F., Kapur N., Frackowiak R. S. J., (1998). The neural systems sustaining face and proper-name processing Brain 121: 2103–2118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Gray C. M., König P., Engel A. K., Singer W., (1989). Oscillatory responses in cat visual cortex exhibit inter-columnar synchronization which reflects global stimulus properties Nature 338: 334–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Grelotti D. J., Gauthier I., Schultz R. T., (2002). Social interest and the development of cortical face specialization: What autism teaches us about face processing Developmental Psychobiology 40: 213–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Grelotti D. J., Klin A., Gauthier I., Skudlarski P., Cohen D. J., Gore J. C., Volkmar F. R., Schultz R. T., (2005). fMRI activation of the fusiform gyrus and amygdala to cartoon characters but not to faces in a boy with autism Neuropsychologia 43: 373–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Grice S. J., Halit H., Farroni T., Baron-Cohen S., Bolton P., Johnson M. H., (2005). Neural correlates of eye-gaze detection in young children with autism Cortex 41: 342–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Grice S. J., Spratling M. W., Karmiloff-Smith A., Halit H., Csibra G., de Haan M., Johnson M. H., (2001). Disordered visual processing and oscillatory brain activity in autism and Williams Syndrome Neuroreport 12: 2697–2700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Gross T. F., (2004). The perception of four basic emotions in human and nonhuman faces by children with autism and other developmental disabilities Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 32: 469–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Grossman J. B., Klin A., Carter A. S., Volkmar F. R., (2000). Verbal bias in recognition of facial emotions in children with Asperger Syndrome Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 41: 369–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Gruber T., Müller M. M., Keil A., (2002). Modulation of induced gamma band responses in a perceptual learning task in the human EEG Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 14: 732–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hadjikhani N., Joseph R. M., Snyder J., Chabris C. F., Clark J., Steele S., McGrath L., Vangel M., Aharon I., Feczko E., Harris G. J., Tager-Flusberg H., (2004). Activation of the fusiform gyrus when individuals with autism spectrum disorder view faces NeuroImage 22: 1141–1150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Halgren E., Raij T., Marinkovic K., Jousmäki V., Hari R., (2000). Cognitive response profile of the human fusiform area as determined by MEG Cerebral Cortex 10: 69–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Halit H., de Haan M., Johnson M., (2000). Modulation of event-related potentials by prototypical and atypical faces Neuroreport 11: 1871–1875PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Hall G. B., Szechtman H., Nahmias C., (2003). Enhanced salience and emotion recognition in Autism: A PET study American Journal of Psychiatry 160: 1439–1441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hauck M., Fein D., Maltby N., Waterhouse L., Feinstein C. (1998). Memory for faces in children with autism. Child Neuropsychology, 4: 187–198Google Scholar
  68. Haueisen J., Tuch D. S., Ramon C., Schimpf P. H., Wedeen V. J., George J. S., Belliveau J. W., (2002). The influence of brain tissue anisotropy on human EEG and MEG NeuroImage 15: 159–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Haxby J. V., Hoffman E. A., Gobbini M. I., (2000). The distributed human neural system for face perception Trends in Cognitive Science 4: 223–233Google Scholar
  70. Haxby J. V., Hoffman E. A., Gobbini M. I., (2002). Human neural systems for face recognition and social communication Biological Psychiatry 51: 59–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Henson R., Shallice T., Dolan R., (2000). Neuroimaging evidence for dissociable forms of repetition priming Science 287: 1269–1272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hobson R. P., (1986a). The autistic child’s appraisal of expressions of emotion Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 27: 321–342Google Scholar
  73. Hobson R. P., (1986b). The autistic child’s appraisal of expressions of emotions: A further study Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 27: 671–680Google Scholar
  74. Hobson R. P., (1987). The autistic child’s recognition of age- and sex-related characteristics of people Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 17: 63–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hobson R. P., Ouston J., Lee A., (1988). What’s in a face? The case of autism British Journal of Psychology 79: 441–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Homa D., Haver B., Schwartz T., (1976). Perceptibility of schematic face stimuli: Evidence for a perceptual gestalt Memory and Cognition 4: 176–185Google Scholar
  77. Hubl D., Bölte S., Feineis-Matthews S., Lanfermann H., Federspiel A., Strik W., Poustka F., Dierks T., (2003). Functional imbalance of visual pathways indicates alternative face processing strategies in autism Neurology 61: 1232–1237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Itier R. J., Taylor M. J., (2002). Inversion and contrast polarity reversal affect both encoding and recognition processes of unfamiliar faces: A repetition study using ERPs NeuroImage 15: 353–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Jeffreys D. A., (1989). A face-responsive potential recorded from the human scalp Experimental Brain Research 78: 193–202Google Scholar
  80. Jemel B., Pisani M., Calabria M., Crommelinck M., Bruyer R., (2003a). Is the N170 for faces cognitively penetrable? Evidence from repetition priming of Mooney faces of familiar and unfamiliar persons Cognitive Brain Research 17: 431–446Google Scholar
  81. Jemel B., Schuller A. M., Cheref-Khan Y., Goffaux V., Crommelinck M., Bruyer R., (2003b). Stepwise emergence of the face-sensitive N170 event-related potential component Neuroreport 14: 2035–2039Google Scholar
  82. Jemel B., Pisani M., Rousselle L., Crommelinck M., Bruyer R. (2005). Exploring the functional architecture of person recognition system with event-related potentials in a within- and cross-domain priming of faces. Neuropsychologia 43: 2024–2240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Joseph R. M., Tanaka J., (2003). Holistic and part-based face recognition in children with autism Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 44: 529–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kanwisher N., McDermott J., Chun M. M., (1997). The fusiform face area: A module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception Journal of Neuroscience 17: 4302–4311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Katanoda K., Yoshikawa K., Sugishita M., (2000). Neural substrates for the recognition of newly learned faces: A functional MRI study Neuropsychologia 38: 1616–1625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Kleiner K. A., (1987). Amplitude and phase spectra as indices of infants’ pattern preferences in human infants Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 7: 339–354Google Scholar
  87. Klin A., Jones W., Schultz R., Volkmar F., Cohen D., (2002). Visual fixation patterns during viewing of naturalistic social situations as predictors of social competence in individuals with autism Archives of General Psychiatry 59: 809–816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lachaux J. P., Rodriguez E., Martinerie J., Adam C., Hasboun D., Varela F. J., (2000). A quantitative study of gamma-band activity in human intracranial recordings triggered by visual stimuli European Journal of Neuroscience, 12: 2608–2622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Lahaie, A., Mottron, L., Arguin, M., Berthiaume, C., Jemel, B., & Saumier, D. (2006). An investigation of configural and part-based face processing in high-functioning autism. Journal of Neuropsychology, in pressGoogle Scholar
  90. Langdell T., (1978). Recognition of faces: An approach to the study of autism Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 19: 255–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Leder H., Bruce V., (2000). When inverted faces are recognized: The role of configural information in face recognition Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 53A: 513–536Google Scholar
  92. LeDoux J. E., (2000). Emotion circuits in the brain Annual Review of Neuroscience 23: 155–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Levine D. N., Calvanio R., (1989). Prosopagnosia: A defect in visual configural processing Brain and Cognition 10: 149–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Linkenkaer-Hansen K., Palva J. M., Sams M., Hietanen J. K., Aronen H. J., Ilmoniemi R., (1998). Face-selective processing in human extrastriate cortex around 120 ms after stimulus onset revealed by magneto- and electroencephalography Neuroscience Letters 253: 147–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Liu J., Harris A., Kanwisher N., (2002). Stages of processing in face perception: An MEG study Nature Neuroscience 5: 910–916PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Lopez B., Donnelly N., Hadwin J. A., (2004). Face processing in high-functioning adolescents with autism: Evidence for weak central coherence Visual Cognition 11: 673–688Google Scholar
  97. Maurer D., Young R., (1983). Newborns’ following of natural and distorted arrangements of facial features Infant Behavior and Development 6: 127–131Google Scholar
  98. Maurer D., Le Grand R., Mondloch C. J., (2002). The many faces of configural processing Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6: 255–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. McPartland J., Dawson G., Webb S. J., Panagiotides H., Carver L. J., (2004). Event-related brain potentials reveal anomalies in temporal processing of faces in autism spectrum disorder Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 45: 1235–1245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Meadows J. C., (1974). The anatomical basis of prosopagnosia Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 37: 489–501Google Scholar
  101. Morris J. S., Frith C. D., Perrett D. I., Rowland D., Young A. W., Calder A. J., Dolan R. J., (1996). A differential neural response in the human amygdala to fearful and happy facial expressions Nature 383: 812–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Morton J., Johnson M. H., (1991). CONSPEC and CONLERN: A two-process theory of infant face recognition Psychological Review 2: 164–181Google Scholar
  103. Moscovitch M., Winocur G., Behrmann M., (1997). What is special about face recognition? Nineteen experiments on a person with visual object agnosia and dyslexia but normal face recognition Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 9: 555–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nakamura K., Kawashima R., Sato N., Nakamura A., Sugiura M., Kato T., Hatano K., Ito K., Fukuda H., Schormann T., Zilles K., (2000). Functional delineation of the human occipito-temporal areas related to face and scene processing. A PET study Brain 123: 1903–1912PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Nelson C. A., de Haan M., (1996). Neural correlates of infants’ visual responsiveness to facial expressions of emotion Developmental Psychobiology 29: 577–595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. O’Connor K., Hamm J. P., Kirk, I. J. (2005). The neurophysiological correlates of face processing in adults and children with Asperger’s syndrome. Brain and Cognition 59: 89–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Ozonoff S., Pennington B., Rogers S., (1990). Are there specific emotion perception deficits in young autistic children? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 31: 343–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Pascalis O., de Schonen S., Morton J., Deruelle C., (1995). Mother’s face recognition by neonates: A replication and extension Infant Behavior and Development 18: 79–95Google Scholar
  109. Pascalis O., Demont E., de Haan M., Campbell R., (2001). Recognition of faces of different species: A developmental study between 5 and 8 years of age Infant and Child Development 10: 39–45Google Scholar
  110. Pelphrey K. A., Sasson N. J., Reznick J. S., Paul G., Goldman B. D., Piven J., (2002). Visual scanning of faces in autism Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 32: 249–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Picton T. W., Bentin S., Berg P., Donchin E., Hillyard S. A., Johnson J. R. R., Miller G. A., Ritter W., Ruschkin D. S., Rugg M. D., Taylor M. J., (2000). Guidelines for using human event-related potentials to study cognition: Recording standards and publication criteria Psychophysiology 37: 127–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Pierce K., Haist F., Sedaghat F., Courchesne E., (2004). The brain response to personally familiar faces in autism: Findings of fusiform activity and beyond Brain 127: 2703–2716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Pierce K., Müller R.-A., Ambrose B. J., Allen G., Courchesne E., (2001). Face processing occurs outside the fusiform face area in autism: Evidence from functional fMRI Brain 124: 2059–2073PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Piggot J., Kwon H., Mobbs D., Blasey C., Lotspeich L., Menon V., Bookheimer S., Reiss A. L., (2004). Emotional attribution in high-functioning individuals with autistic spectrum disorder: A functional imaging study Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43: 473–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Pizzagalli D., Regard M., Lehmann D., (1999). Rapid emotional face processing in the human right and left brain hemispheres: An ERP study Neuroreport 10: 2691–2698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Prior M. R., Dahlstrom B., Squires T., (1990). Autistic children’s knowledge of thinking and feeling states in other people Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 31: 587–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Puce A., Allison T., Asgari M., Gore J. C., McCarthy G., (1996). Differential sensitivity of human visual cortex to faces, letterstrings, and texture: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study Journal of Neuroscience 16: 5205–5215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Puce A., Allison T., Bentin S., Gore J. C., McCarthy G. T., (1998). Temporal cortex activation in humans viewing eye and mouth movements Journal of Neuroscience 18: 2188–2199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Rakover S. S., (2002). Featural vs. configurational information in faces: A conceptual and empirical analysis British Journal of Psychology 93: 1–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Rhodes G., Brake S., Atkinson A. P., (1993). What’s lost in inverted faces? Cognition 47: 25–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Robson M. D., Dorosz J. L., Gore J. C., (1998). Measurements of the temporal fMRI response of the human auditory cortex to trains of tones NeuroImage 7: 185–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Rodriguez E., George N., Lachaux J.-P., Martinerie J., Renault B., Varela F. J., (1999). Perception’s shadow: Long-distance synchronization of human brain activity Nature 397: 430–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Rossion B., Gauthier I., Tarr M. J., Despland P., Bruyer R., Linotte S., Crommelinck M., (2000). The N170 occipito-temporal component is delayed and enhanced to inverted faces but not to inverted objects: An electrophysiological account of face-specific processes in the human brain Neuroreport 11: 69–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Rouse H., Donnelly N., Hadwin J. A., Brown T., (2004). Do children with autism perceive second-order relational features? The case of the Thatcher illusion Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 45: 1246–1257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Rush S., Driscoll D. A., (1968). Current distribution in the brain from surface electrodes Anesthesia and Analgesia 47: 717–723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Sagiv N., Bentin S., (2001). Structural encoding of human and schematic faces: Holistic and part-based processes Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 13: 937–951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Sams M., Hietanen J. K., Hari R., Ilmoniemi R. J., Lounasmaa O. V., (1997). Face-specific responses from the human inferior occipito-temporal cortex Neuroscience 77: 49–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Schultz R. T., (2005). Developmental deficits in social perception in autism: The role of the amygdala and fusiform face area International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 23: 125–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Schultz R. T., Gauthier I., Klin A., Fulbright R. K., Anderson A. W., Volkmar F., Skudlarski P., Lacadie C., Cohen D. J., Gore J. C., (2000). Abnormal ventral temporal cortical activity during face discrimination among individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome Archives of General Psychiatry 57: 331–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Schultz, R. T., Win, L., Jackowski, A., Klin, A., Staib, L., Papademetris, X., Babitz, T., Carter, E., Klaiman, C., Fieler, A., & Volkmar, F. (2005). Brain morphology in autism spectrum disorders: An MRI study. Proceedings of International meeting for Autism Research, p. 70Google Scholar
  131. Schweinberger S. R., Pickering E. C., Burton A. M., Kaufmann J. M., (2002). Human brain potential correlates of repetition priming in face and name recognition Neuropsychologia 40: 2057–2073PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Searcy J. H., Barlett J. C., (1996). Inversion and processing of component and spatial-relational information in faces Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 22: 904–915PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Senju A., Tojo Y., Yaguchi K., Hasegawa T., (2005). Deviant gaze processing in children with autism: An ERP study Neuropsychologia 43: 1297–1306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Sergent J., Ohta S., MacDonald B., (1992). Functional neuroanatomy of face and object processing: A positron emission tomography study Brain 115: 15–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Simion F., Cassia V. M., Turati C., Valenza E., (2001). The origins of face perception: Specific versus non-specific mechanisms Infant and Child Development 10: 59–65Google Scholar
  136. Simion F., Valenza E., Umiltà C., Dalla Barba B., (1998). Preferential orienting to faces in newborns: A temporal–nasal asymmetry Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 24: 1399–1405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Tallon-Baudry C., Bertrand O., Delpuech C., Pernier J., (1997). Oscillatory gamma-band (30–70 Hz) activity induced by a visual search task in human Journal of Neuroscience 17: 722–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Tanaka J. W., (2001). The entry point of face recognition: Evidence for face expertise Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 130: 534–543Google Scholar
  139. Tanaka J. W., Farah M. J., (1993). Parts and wholes in face recognition Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 46A: 225–245Google Scholar
  140. Tanskanen T., Nasanen R., Montez T., Paallysaho J., Hari R., (2005). Face recognition and cortical responses show similar sensitivity to noise spatial frequency Cerebral Cortex 15: 526–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Tantam D., Monagham L., Nicholson H., Stirling J., (1989). Autistic children’s ability to interpret faces: A research note Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 30: 623–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Tarr M. J., Cheng Y. D., (2003). Learning to see faces and objects Trends in Cogitive Sciences 7: 23–30Google Scholar
  143. Taylor M. J., Batty M., Itier R. J., (2004). The faces of development: A review of early face processing over childhood Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 16: 1426–1442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Taylor M. J., McCarthy G., Saliba E., Degiovanni E., (1999). ERP evidence of developmental changes in processing of faces Clinical Neurophysiology 110: 910–915PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Teunisse J.-P., de Gelder B., (2003). Face processing in adolescents with autistic disorder: The inversion and composite effects Brain and Cognition 52: 285–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Teunisse J.-P., de Gelder B., (1994). Do autistics have a generalized face processing deficit? International Journal of Neuroscience 77: 1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Thompson M. C., (1980). Margaret Thatcher: A new illusion Perception 9: 483–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Valentine T., (1988). Upside-down faces: A review of the effects of inversion upon face recognition British Journal of Psychology 79: 471–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Valenza E., Simion F., Macchi Cassia V., Umiltà C., (1996). Face preference at birth Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 22: 892–903PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. van der Geest J. N., Kemner C., Camfferman G., Verbaten M. N., van Engeland H., (2002). Looking at images with human figures: Comparison between autistic and normal children Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 32: 69–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Volkmar F., Chawarska K., Klin A., (2005). Autism in infancy and early childhood Annual Review of Psychology 56: 315–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Volkmar F. R., Sparrow S. S., Rende R. D., Cohen D. J., (1989). Facial perception in autism Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 30: 591–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Vuilleumier P., Armony J. L., Driver J., Dolan R. J., (2001). Effects of attention and emotion on face processing in the human brain: An event-related fMRI study Neuron 30: 829–841PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Waiter G. D., Williams J. H., Murray A. D., Gilchrist A., Perrett D. I., Whiten A., (2004). A voxel-based investigation of brain structure in male adolescents with autistic spectrum disorder NeuroImage 22: 619–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Wang A. T., Dapretto M., Hariri A. R., Sigman M., Bookheimer S. Y., (2004). Neural correlates of facial affect processing in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43: 481–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Weeks S. J., Hobson R. P., (1987). The salience of facial expression for autistic children Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 28: 137–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Wicker B., Michel F., Henaff M. A., Decety J., (1998). Cerebral structures involved in the perception of gaze: A PET study NeuroImage 8: 221–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Yin R., (1969). Looking at upside-down faces Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 81: 141–145Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Boutheina Jemel
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Laurent Mottron
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Michelle Dawson
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Laboratory in Neuroscience and Cognitive ElectrophysiologyHôpital Rivière des PrairiesMontréalCanada
  2. 2.Neurodevelopmental Disorders ProgramHôpital Rivière des PrairiesMontréalCanada
  3. 3.Centre de Recherche Fernand-SeguinMontréalCanada
  4. 4.Psychiatry Department, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MontrealMontréalCanada
  5. 5.Research Laboratory in Neuroscience and Cognitive ElectrophysiologyHôpital Rivière des PrairiesMontréalCanada

Personalised recommendations