Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 27–43 | Cite as

Enhanced Perceptual Functioning in Autism: An Update, and Eight Principles of Autistic Perception

  • Laurent Mottron
  • Michelle Dawson
  • Isabelle Soulières
  • Benedicte Hubert
  • Jake Burack
Article

We propose an “Enhanced Perceptual Functioning” model encompassing the main differences between autistic and non-autistic social and non-social perceptual processing: locally oriented visual and auditory perception, enhanced low-level discrimination, use of a more posterior network in “complex” visual tasks, enhanced perception of first order static stimuli, diminished perception of complex movement, autonomy of low-level information processing toward higher-order operations, and differential relation between perception and general intelligence. Increased perceptual expertise may be implicated in the choice of special ability in savant autistics, and in the variability of apparent presentations within PDD (autism with and without typical speech, Asperger syndrome) in non-savant autistics. The overfunctioning of brain regions typically involved in primary perceptual functions may explain the autistic perceptual endophenotype.

Keywords

Perception enhanced perceptual functioning autism Asperger syndrome expertise savant syndrome local and global processing fMRI 

References

  1. Baron-Cohen S., Ring H. A., Wheelwright S., Bullmore E. T., Brammer M. J., Simmons A., Williams S. C. R., (1999). Social intelligence in the normal and autistic brain: An fMRI study European Journal of Neuroscience 11:1891–1908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Behrmann, M., Avidan, G., Leonard, G. L., Kimchi, R., Luna, B., Humphreys, K., & Minshew, N. (2005). Configural processing in autism and its relationship to face processing. Neuropsychologia Google Scholar
  3. Belmonte M. K., Yurgelun-Todd D. A., (2003). Functional anatomy of impaired selective attention and compensatory processing in autism Cognitive Brain Research 17:651–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Belmonte M. K., Allen G., Beckel-Mitchener A., Boulanger L. M., Carper R. A., Webb S. J., (2004) Autism and abnormal development of brain connectivity The Journal of Neuroscience 24:9228–9231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bertone A., Mottron L., Jelenic P., Faubert J., (2003). Motion perception in autism: A complex issue? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 15:218–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bertone, A., Mottron, L., Jelenic, P., & Faubert, J. (2005). Enhanced and diminished visuo-spatial information processing in autism depends on stimulus complexity. Brain 128:2430–2441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bertone, A., Mottron, L., & Faubert, J. (in press). Dissociating pathway-versus complexity-specific accounts of motion perception impairments in autism. Commentary on Milne, Swettenham, & Campbell Motion perception in autism: A review. Current Psychology of Cognition, 23 Google Scholar
  8. Bertone, A., & Faubert, J. (2006). Demonstrations of decreased sensitivity to complex motion information not enough to propose an autism-specific neural etiology. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, this issueGoogle Scholar
  9. Blake R., Turner L. M., Smoski M. J., Pozdol S. L., Stine W. L., (2003). Visual recognition of biological motion is impaired in children with autism Psychological Science 14:151–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boeschoten, M. A., Kemner, C., Kenemans, J. L., & Engeland, H. (submitted). Abnormal spatial frequency processing in children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)Google Scholar
  11. Bonnel A. C., Mottron L., Peretz I., Trudel M., Gallun E., Bonnel A. M., (2003). Enhanced sensitivity for pitch in individuals with autism: A signal detection analysis Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 15:226–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brosnan M. J., Scott F. J., Fox S., Pye J., (2004). Gestalt processing in autism: Failure to process perceptual relationships and the implications for contextual understanding Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 4:54–59Google Scholar
  13. Caron, M. J., Mottron, L., & Berthiaume, C. (submitted). Cognitive mechanisms, specificity and neural underpinnings of Block-design peak in autismGoogle Scholar
  14. Castelli F., Frith C., Happe F., Frith U., (2002). Autism, Asperger syndrome and brain mechanisms for the attribution of mental states to animated shapes Brain 125:1839–1849PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chawarska K., Klin A., Volkmar F., (2003). Automatic attention cueing through eye movement in 2-year-old children with autism Child Development 74:1108–1122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Courchesne E., Pierce K., (2005). Why the frontal cortex in autism might be talking only to itself: Local over-connectivity but long-distance disconnection Current Opinion in Neurobiology 15:225–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Critchley H. D., Daly E. M., Bullmore E. T., Williams S. C., Van Amelsvoort T., Robertson D. M., Rowe A., Phillips M., McAlonan G., Howlin P., Murphy D. G., (2000). The functional neuroanatomy of social behaviour: Changes in cerebral blood flow when people with autistic disorder process facial expressions Brain 123:2203–2212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dawson, M. (2004). The misbehaviour of behaviourists. http://www.sentex.net/~nexus23/naa_aba.htmlGoogle Scholar
  19. Dawson, M., Mottron L., Jelenic P., & Soulières I. (2005). Superior performance of autistics on RPM and PPVT relative to Wechsler scales provides evidence for the nature of autistic intelligence. Poster presented at the International Meeting for Autism Research, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  20. Dawson G., Webb S., McPartland J., (2005). Understanding the nature of face processing impairment in autism: Insights from behavioral and electrophysiological studies Developmental Neuropsychology 27:403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Deruelle C., Rondan C., Gepner B., Tardif C., (2004). Spatial frequency and face processing in children with autism and Asperger syndrome Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 34:199–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ellis A. W., Young A. W., (1988). Human cognitive neuropsychology. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJGoogle Scholar
  23. Foxton J. M., Stewart M. E., Barnard L., Rodgers J., Young A. H., O’Brien G., Griffiths T. D., (2003). Absence of auditory ‘global interference’ in autism Brain 126:2703–2709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Frith U., (1989). Autism: Explaining the enigma. (2 edition 2003) Basil Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  25. Frith U., Happé F., (1994). Autism: Beyond “theory of mind” Cognition 50:115–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Frith C., (2003). What do imaging studies tell us about the neural basis of autism. In Bock G., Goode J., (Eds.), Autism: Neural basis and treatment possibilities.John Wiley & Sons Chichester, U.K. 149–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gauthier, J., Joober, R., Mottron, L., Fuchs, M., De Kimpe, V., & Rouleau, G. A. (2003). Mutation screening of Foxp2 in children diagnosed with autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics 132:74–75Google Scholar
  28. Grelotti D. J., Klin A. J., Gauthier. I., Skudlarski P., Cohen D. J., Gore J. C., Volkmar F. R., Schultz R. T., (2005). fMRI activation of the fusiform gyrus and amygdala to cartoon characters but not to faces in a boy with autism Neuropsychologia 43:373–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grill-Spector K., Malach R., (2004). The human visual cortex Annual Review of Neuroscience 27:649–677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Haist F., Adamo M., Westerfield M., Courchesne E., Townsend J., (2005). The functional neuroanatomy of spatial attention in Autism Spectrum Disorder Developmental Neuropsychology 27:425–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hall G. B., Szechtman H., Nahmias C., (2003). Enhanced salience and emotion recognition in autism: A PET study American Journal of Psychiatry 160:1439–1441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hadjikhani N., Joseph R. M., Snyder J., Chabris C. F., Clark J., Steele S., McGrath L., Vangel M., Aharon I., Eric Feczko E., Harris G. J., Helen Tager-Flusberg H., (2004). Activation of the fusiform gyrus when individuals with autism spectrum disorder view faces Neuroimage 22:1141–1150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Happé F. G., (1999). Autism: Cognitive deficit or cognitive style Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3:216–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Happé, F. G., & Frith, U. (2006). The weak coherence account: Detailed-focused cognitive style in austism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, this issueGoogle Scholar
  35. Hazlett E. A., Buchsbaum M. S., Hsieh P., Haznedar M. M., Platoli J., LiCalzi E. M., Carthwritht C., Hollander E., (2004). Regional glucose metabolism within cortical Brodmann areas in healthy Individuals and autistic patients Neuropsychobiology 49:115–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Heavey L., Pring L., Hermelin B., (1999). A date to remember: The nature of memory in savant calendrical calculators Psychological Medicine 29:145–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Herbert M. R., Ziegler D. A., Makris N., Filipek P. A., Kemper T. L, Normandin J. J., Sanders H. A., Kennedy D. N., Caviness Jr V. S., (2004). Localization of white matter volume increase in autism and developmental language disorder Annals of Neurology 55:530–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hubl D., Bolte S., Feineis-Matthews S., Lanfermann H., Federspiel A., Strik W., Poustka F., Dierks T., (2003). Functional imbalance of visual pathways indicates alternative face processing strategies in autism Neurology 61:1232–1237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Jarrold C., Gilchrist I. D., Bender A., (2005). Embedded figures detection in autism and typical development: Preliminary evidence of a double dissociation in relationships with visual search Developmental Science 8:344–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jemel, B., Boeschoten, M., Mottron, L., Hosein, A., van Engeland, H., & Kemner, C. (2005). An ERP investigation of atypical processing of spatial frequencies in social and non-social information in autism spectrum disorder. International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR), Boston MAGoogle Scholar
  41. Jolliffe T, Baron-Cohen S., (1997) Are people with autism and Asperger syndrome faster than normal on the Embedded Figures Test? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 38:527–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Joseph R. M., Tanaka J., (2002). Holistic and part-based face recognition in children with autism Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 44:529–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Johnson M. H., Halit H., Grice S. J., Karmiloff-Smith A., (2002). Neuroimaging of typical and atypical development: A perspective from multiple levels of analysis Development and Psychopathology 14:521–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Just M. A., Cherkassky V. L., Keller T. A., Minshew N. J., (2004). Cortical activation and synchronization during sentence comprehension in highfunctioning autism: Evidence of underconnectivity Brain 127:1811–1821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kanner L., (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact The Nervous Child 2:217–250Google Scholar
  46. Kapur N., (1996) Paradoxical functional facilitation in brain-behaviour research. A critical review Brain 119:1775–1790PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kemner C., Verbaten M. N., Cuperus J. M., Camfferman G., van Engeland H., (1995). Auditory event-related brain potentials in autistic children and three different control groups Biological Psychiatry 28:150–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kemner, C., & van Engeland, H. (2006). ERPs and eye movements reflect atypical visual perception in pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, this issueGoogle Scholar
  49. Koshino, H., Carpenter, P. A., Minshew, N. J., Cherkassky, V. L., Keller, T. A., & Just, M. A. (2005). Functional connectivity in an fMRI working memory task in high-functoning autism. Neuroimage 24: 810–821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lahaie, A., Mottron, L., Arguin, M., Berthiaume, C., Jemel, B., & Saumier, D. (in press). Face perception in high-functioning autistic adults: Evidence for superior processing of face parts, not for a configural face processing deficit. Neuropsychology Google Scholar
  51. Luna B., Minshew N. J., Garver K. E., Lazar N. A., Thulborn K. R., Eddy W. F., Sweeney J. A., (2002). Neocortical system abnormalities in autism: An fMRI study of spatial working memory Neurology 59:834–840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Ma D. Q., Jaworski J., Menold M. M., Donnelly S., Abramson R. K., Wright H. H., Delong G. R., Gilbert J. R., Pericak-Vance M. A., Cuccaro M. L., (2005) Ordered-subset analysis of savant skills in autism for 15q11–q13 American Journal of Medical Genetic B: Neuropsychiatric Genetic 135:38–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mercier C., Mottron L., Belleville S., (2000). A psychosocial study on restricted interests in high functioning persons with pervasive developmental disorders Autism 4:409–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Miles J.H., Takahashi T. N., Bagby S., Sahota P. K., Vaslow D. F., Wang C. H., Hillman R. E., Farmer J. E., (2005). Essential versus complex autism: Definition of fundamental prognostic subtypes American Journal of Medical Genetics A 135:171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Miller L. K., (1999). The savant syndrome: Intellectual impairment and exceptional skill Psychological Bulletin 125:31–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Milne E., Sweetenham J., Hansen P., Campbell R., Jeffries H., Plaisted K., (2002). High motion coherence thresholds in children with autism Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 43:255–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Minshew N., Goldstein G., (1993). Is autism an amnesic disorder? Evidence from the California Verbal Learning Test Neuropsychology 7:209–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Minshew N. J., Goldstein G., Siegel D. J., (1995). Speech and language in high-functioning autistic individuals Neuropsychology 9:255–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Minshew N. J., Goldstein G., Siegel D. J., (1997). Neuropsychologic functioning in autism: Profile of a complex information processing disorder Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 3:303–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Molesworth, C. J., Bowler, D. M., & Hampton, J. A. (2005). The prototype effect in recognition memory: Intact in autism? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46:661–672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mottron L., (2004). Matching strategies in cognitive research with individuals with high-functioning autism: Current practices, instrument biases, and recommendations Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Special Issue on Methodology 34:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mottron L., Belleville S., (1993). A study of perceptual analysis in a high-level autistic subject with exceptionnal graphic abilities Brain and Cognition 23:279–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mottron L., Belleville S., Ménard E., (1999b). Local bias in autistic subjects as evidenced by graphic tasks: Perceptual hierarchization or working memory deficit? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 40:743–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mottron L., Belleville S., Stip E., (1996). Proper Name Hypermnesia in an autistic subject Brain and Language 53:326–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mottron L., Burack J., (2001). Enhanced perceptual functioning in the development of autism. In Burack J. A., Charman T., Yirmiya N., Zelazo P. R., (Eds). The development of autism: Perspectives from theory and research. Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 131–148Google Scholar
  66. Mottron L., Burack J., Iarocci G. Belleville S., Enns J., (2003). Locally oriented perception with intact global processing among adolescents with high functioning autism: Evidence from Multiple Paradigms Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 44:906–913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mottron L., Burack J., Stauder J., Robaey P., (1999a). Perceptual processing among high-functioning persons with autism Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 40:203–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mottron, L., Lemmens, K., Gagnon, L., & Seron, X. (in press). Non-algorithmic access to calendar information in a calendar calculator with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Google Scholar
  69. Mottron L., Mineau S., Décarie J. C., Labrecque R., Jambaqué I., Pépin J. P., Aroichane M., (1997). Visual agnosia with bilateral temporo-occipital brain lesions in a child with an autistic disorder: A case study Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 39:699–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mottron, L., Mineau, S., Martel, G., Saintonge, C., Berthiaume, C., Dawson, M., Lemay, M., Palardy, M, Charman, T., & Faubert J. (in press). Lateral glances toward moving stimuli among toddlers with autism: Early evidence of locally-oriented perception?Google Scholar
  71. Mottron L., Peretz I., Belleville S., Rouleau N., (1999c). Absolute pitch in autism: A case study Neurocase 5:485–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mottron L., Peretz I., Ménard E., (2000). Local and global processing of music in high-functioning persons with autism Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 41:1057–1068PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. MRC (2001). Review of autism research. Epidemiology and causes. www.mrc.ac.ukGoogle Scholar
  74. Müller R.-A., Kleinhans N., Kemmotsu N., Pierce K., Courchesne E., (2003). Abnormal variability and distribution of functional maps in autism: An fMRI study of visuomotor learning American Journal of Psychiatry 160:1847–1862PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nurmi E. L., Dowd M., Tadevosyan-Leyfer O., Haines J. L., Folstein S. E., Sutcliffe J. S., (2003). Exploratory subsetting of autism families based on savant skills improves evidence of genetic linkage to 15q11–q13 Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 42:856–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. O’Connor N., Hermelin B., (1989). The memory structure of autistic idiot-savant mnemonist British Journal of Psychology 80:97–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. O’Connor N., Cowan R., Zamella K., (2000). Calendrical Calculation and intelligence Intelligence 28:31–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. O’Riordan M. A., Plaisted K. C., Driver J., Baron-Cohen S., (2001). Superior visual search in autism Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 27:719–730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ozonoff S., Strayer D. L., McMahon W. M., Filloux F., (1994). Executive function abilities in autism and Tourette syndrome: An information processing approach Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 35:1015–1037PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pavone P., Incorpora G., Fiumara A., Parano E., Trifiletti R. R., Ruggieri M., (2004). Epilepsy is not a prominent feature of primary autism Neuropediatrics 35:207–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pellicano E., Gibson L., Maybery M., Durkin K., Badcock D. R., (2005). Abnormal global processing along the dorsal visual pathway in autism: A possible mechanism for weak central coherence Neuropsychologia 43:1044–1053PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pennington B. F., Ozonoff S., (1996) Executive functions and developmental psychopathology Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 37:51–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pierce K., Müller R.-A., Ambrose J. B., Allen G., Courchesne E., (2001). Face processing occurs outside the ‘fusiform face area’ in autism: Evidence from functional MRI Brain 124:2059–2073PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pierce K., Haist F., Sedaghat F., Courchesne E., (2004), The brain response to personally familiar faces in autism: Findings of fusiform activity and beyond Brain 127:2703–2716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Plaisted, K., Dobler, V., Bell, S., & Davis, G. (2006). The microgenesis of global perception in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, this issueGoogle Scholar
  86. Plaisted K., (2001). Reduced generalization in autism: An alternative to weak central coherence. In Burack J. A., Charman T., Yirmiya N., Zelazo P. R., (Eds). The development of autism: Perspectives from theory and research. Erlbaum Mahwah, NJ, 149–169Google Scholar
  87. Plaisted K., O’Riordan M., Baron-Cohen S., (1998). Enhanced discrimination of novel, highly similar stimuli by adults with autism during a perceptual learning task Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 39:765–775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Plaisted K., Saksida L., Alcantara J., Weisblatt E., (2003). Towards an understanding of the mechanisms of weak central coherence effects: Experiments in visual configural learning and auditory perception Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 358:375–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Plaisted K., Swettenham J., Rees L., (1999). Children with autism show local precedence in a divided attention task and global precedence in a selective attention task Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 40:733–742PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pring L., Hermelin B., (2002). Numbers and letters: Exploring an autistic savant's unpracticed ability Neurocase 8:330–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Rinehart N. J., Bradshaw J. L., Moss S. A., Brereton A. V., Tonge B. J., (2000). Atypical interference of local detail on global processing in high-functioning autism and Asperger’s disorder Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 41:769–778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ring H. A., Baron-Cohen S., Wheelright S., Williams S. C., Brammer M., Andrew C., Bullmore E. T., (1999). Cerebral correlates of preserved cognitive skills in autism: A functional MRI study of Embedded Figures Task performance Brain 122:1305–1315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Robertson L. C., Lamb M. R., (1991). Neuropsychological contribution to theories of part/whole organisation Cognitive Neuropsychology 23:299–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ropar D., Mitchell P., (1999). Are individual’s with autism and Asperger’s Syndrome susceptible to visual illusions? Journal of Child Psychiatry and Psychology 40:1283–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ropar D., Mitchell P., (2002). Shape constancy in autism: The role of prior knowledge and perspective cues Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 43:647–653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Samson et al. (2006). Can spectro-temporal complexity explain the autistic pattern of performance on auditory tasks? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, this issueGoogle Scholar
  97. Schultz R. T., (2005). Developmental deficits in social perception in autism: The role of the amygdala and fusiform face area International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 23:125–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schultz, R. T., Win, L., Jackowski, A., Klin, A., Staib, L., Papademetris, X., Babitz, T., Carter, E., Klaiman, C., Fieler, A., & Volkmar F. (2005). Brain morphology in autism spectrum disorders: An MRI study. Paper presented at the International Meeting for Autism Research, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  99. Schweickert R., (1993) A multinomial processing tree model for degradation and redintegration in immediate recall Memory and Cognition 21:168–175Google Scholar
  100. Segui J., Mehler J., Frauenfelder J. H., Morton J., (1982). The word frequency effect and lexical access Neuropsychologia 20:615–627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Shah A., Frith U., (1983). An islet of ability in autistic children: A research note Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 24:613–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Shah A., Frith U., (1993). Why do autistic individuals show superior performance on the block design task? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 34:1351–1364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Soulières, I. Mottron, L., Giguère, G., & Larochelle, S. (submitted). Category learning in autistic individuals: Typical performance based on a reduced number of dimensions?Google Scholar
  104. Soulières, I., Mottron, L. Saumier, D., & Larochelle, S. (in press). Atypical categorical perception in autism: Autonomy of discrimination? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Google Scholar
  105. Tager-Flusberg H., Joseph R., Folstein S., (2001) Current directions in research on autism. Mental retardation and developmental disabilities Research Reviews 7:21–29Google Scholar
  106. Thomas M., Karmiloff-Smith A., (2002). Are developmental disorders like cases of adult brain damage? Implications from connectionist modeling The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25:727–750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Volkmar F. R., Lord C., Bailey A., Schultz R. T., Klin A., (2004). Autism and pervasive developmental disorders Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 45:135–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zatorre RJ., (2003) Absolute pitch: A model for understanding the influence of genes and development on neural and cognitive function Nature Neuroscience 6:692–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zwaigenbaum L., Bryson S., Rogers T., Roberts W., Brian J., Szatmari P., (2005). Behavioral manifestations of autism in the first year of life International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 23:143–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laurent Mottron
    • 1
    • 2
    • 6
  • Michelle Dawson
    • 1
  • Isabelle Soulières
    • 1
    • 3
  • Benedicte Hubert
    • 1
    • 4
  • Jake Burack
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Pervasive Developmental Disorders Specialized Clinic, Rivière-des-Prairies Hospital, & Fernand Seguin Research CenterUniversity of MontréalMontréalCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of MontréalMontréalCanada
  3. 3.Départment of PsychologyUniversity of MontréalMontréalCanada
  4. 4.Université de Provence-Côte d’AzurMarseilleFrance
  5. 5.Department of Educational PsychologyMcGill UniversityMontréalCanada
  6. 6.Hôpital Rivière-des-PrairiesMontréalCanada

Personalised recommendations