Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 197–203

Reflections on Opening Pandora’s Box

Article

Publishing my paper on Asperger’s syndrome in 1981, and suggesting that it is part of the autistic spectrum, has had various consequences. These include the growth of interest in the syndrome among the general public as well as professionals. Controversy over definitions of subgroups and prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders has increased. Adult psychiatrists are becoming aware that high functioning autistic disorders can underlie psychiatric conditions. Naming the condition has helped many with the syndrome to greater understanding of their skills and disabilities. It has highlighted the special contribution people with Asperger syndrome have made to the world. There has been a growth of specialist services but many more are needed. Describing and naming the syndrome has had mainly positive effects.

Keywords

Asperger’s syndrome history diagnosis prevalence 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrams, A., Henriques, L. 2004The autistic spectrum: Parents’ daily helperUlysses PressBerkely, CA.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association1994Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder. (4th ed.)AuthorWashington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Asperger, H. 1944Die “autistischen psychopathen” im KindersalterArchives fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten11776136Google Scholar
  4. Asperger, H. 1979Problems of infantile autismCommunication134552Google Scholar
  5. Baron-Cohen, S. 1998Does autism occur more often in famiies of physicists, engineers and mathematicians?Autism2296301Google Scholar
  6. Baron-Cohen, S. 2003The essential difference: Men, women and the extreme male brainAllen LaneLondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnard, J., Prior, A., Potter, D. 2000Inclusion and autism: Is it working? A thousand examples of inclusion in education and adult life from the national autistic society membersNational Autistic SocietyLondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Ehlers, S., Gillberg, C. 1993The epidemiology of Asperger syndromeJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry3413271350Google Scholar
  9. Fitzgerald, M., Corvin, A. 2001Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Asperger syndromeAdvances in Psychiatric Treatment7310318Google Scholar
  10. Fitzgerald, M. 2004Autism and CreativityBrunner RoutledgeNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Fombonne, E. 2001What is the prevalence of Asperger disorder?Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders31363364Google Scholar
  12. Frith, U. 1991

    Translation of Asperger’s paper “Autistic psychopathy” in children

    Frith, U. eds. Autism and Asperger syndromeCambridge University PressCambridge
    Google Scholar
  13. Frith, U. 2003Autism: Explaining the EnigmaBlackwellOxfordGoogle Scholar
  14. Gerland, G. 2003A real person: Life on the outsideSouvenir PressLondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Gillberg, C. 2002A Guide to Asperger syndromeCambridge University PressCambridgeGoogle Scholar
  16. Grandin, T., Scariano, M. 1986Emergence labelled autisticArena PressNovato, CAGoogle Scholar
  17. Gray, C., White, A. L. 2002My social stories bookJessica KingsleyLondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Haddon, M. 2003The curious incident of the dog in the night timeJonathon CapeLondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Hare, J. D., Malone, C. 2004Catatonia and autistic spectrum disordersAutism8183196Google Scholar
  20. Howlin, P. 2003Outcome in high-functioning adults with autism with and without early language delays: Implications for the differentiation between autism and Asperger syndromeJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders33313Google Scholar
  21. Kanner, L., Eisenberg, L. 1956Early infantile autism 1943–1955American Journal of Orthopsychiatry265565Google Scholar
  22. Klin, A., Volkmar, F. 2000

    Treatment and intervention guidelines for individuals with Asperger syndrome

    Klin, A.Volkmar, F.Sparrow, S. eds. Asperger syndromeGuildford PressNew York340366
    Google Scholar
  23. Leekam, S., Libby, S., Wing, L., Gould, J., Gillberg, G. 2000Comparison of ICD 10 and Gillberg’s criteria for Asperger syndromeAutism41128Google Scholar
  24. Lucas, P. 2001John Howard and Asperger’s syndrome: Psychopathology and philanthropyHistory of Psychiatry1273101Google Scholar
  25. Manjiviona, J., Prior, M. 1999Neuropsychological profiles of children with Asperger syndrome and autismAutism3327356Google Scholar
  26. Mawhood, L., Howlin, P. 1999The outcome of a supported employment scheme for high-functioning adults with autism or Asperger syndromeAutism3229254Google Scholar
  27. Nylander, L., Gillberg, C. 2001Screening for autism spectrum disorders in adult psychiatric out-patients: A preliminary reportActa Psychiatrica Scandinavica103428434Google Scholar
  28. Sainsbury, C. 2000Martian in the playground: Understanding the school child with Asperger’s syndromeLucky DuckBristolGoogle Scholar
  29. Schopler, E. 1996Ask the editor: Are autism and Asperger syndrome different labels or different disabilitiesJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders26109110Google Scholar
  30. Slater-Walker, C., Slater-Walker, G. 2002An Asperger marriageJessica KingsleyLondonGoogle Scholar
  31. Tantam, D. 1988Lifelong eccentricity and social isolation: I. Psychiatric, social and forensic aspectsBritish Journal of Psychiatry153777778Google Scholar
  32. Volkmar, F., Klin, A. 2000

    Diagnostic issues in Asperger Syndrome

    Klin, A.Volkmar, F.Sparrow, S. eds. Asperger SyndromeGuildford PressNew York
    Google Scholar
  33. Wing, L. 1981“Asperger’s syndrome: A clinical account”Psychological Medicine11115129Google Scholar
  34. Wing, L. 1997Editorial; Asperger’s syndrome: management requires diagnosisJournal of Forensic Psychiatry8253257Google Scholar
  35. Wing, L. 2000

    Past and future research on Asperger syndrome

    Klin, A.Volkmar, F.Sparrow, S. eds. Asperger SyndromeGuildford PressNew York
    Google Scholar
  36. Wing L. (to be published) Problems of categorical classification systems. F. Volkmar, A. Klin, R. Paul (Eds.), Handbook of Autism and Developmental Disorders (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  37. Wing, L., Gould, J. 1979“Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification”Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders91129Google Scholar
  38. Wing, L., Potter, D. 2002The epidemiology of autistic spectrum disorders: Is the prevalence rising?Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews8151161Google Scholar
  39. Wing, L., Shah, A. 2000Catatonia in autistic spectrum disordersBritish Journal of Psychiatry176357362Google Scholar
  40. Wolff, S. 1995Loners: The life path of unusual childrenRoutledgeLondonGoogle Scholar
  41. Wolff, S. 1996The first account of the syndrome Asperger describedEuropean Child and Adolescent Psychiatry5119132Google Scholar
  42. World Health Organisation1993The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Diagnostic criteria for researchAuthorGenevaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Autistic Society Centre for Social and Communication DisordersBromleyUK

Personalised recommendations