Peer Victimization and Selective Attention in Adolescence: Evidence from a Monozygotic Twin Difference Design
- 31 Downloads
Peer victimization impacts 13% of adolescents worldwide (Currie et al. 2012). Despite its prevalence and associated adverse outcomes, global cognitive processes that could be affected by peer victimization have not been thoroughly investigated. Using a monozygotic (MZ) twin difference design that rigorously controls for the influence of genetic and familial level confounders, we examined the relation between peer victimization exposure and selective attention processes during an affective go/no go task. Twins who experienced more severe peer victimization were biased towards detecting goal relevant stimuli during the task. Our findings suggest an environmentally salient relation between peer victimization and goal oriented selective attention. Future work should investigate how this process might serve to enhance or buffer risk of peer victimization exposure for developing later adverse outcomes.
KeywordsPeer victimization Peer relationships Attention Twins Bullying
We thank the families who participated in the study and the staff members who helped with data collection.
Data collection for this project was supported by P50 MH100031 and R01 MH059785 from the National Institute of Mental Health. Data analysis and writing of this manuscript was partly supported by T32 MH018931, K01 MH113710, and R01 MH101504 from the National Institute of Mental Health. Infrastructure support was also provided by core grants P30 HD03352 and U54 HD09025 to the Waisman Center from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Armstrong, J. M., & Goldstein, L. H. with The MacArthur working group on outcome assessment (2003). Manual for the MacArthur Health and Behavior Questionnaire (HBQ 1.0). MacArthur Foundation research network on psychopathology and development (David J. Kupfer, Chair), University of Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
- Arseneault, L., Milne, B. J., Taylor, A., Adams, F., Delgado, K., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (2008). Being bullied as an environmentally mediated contributing factor to children’s internalizing problems: A study of twins discordant for victimization. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162(2), 145–150. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpediatrics.2007.53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brendgen, M., Ouellet-Morin, I., Lupien, S. J., Vitaro, F., Dionne, G., & Boivin, M. (2017). Environmental influence of problematic social relationships on adolescents’ daily cortisol secretion: a monozygotic twin-difference study. Psychological Medicine, 47(3), 460–470. https://doi.org/10.1017/S003329171600252X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brooker, R. J., Buss, K. A., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Aksan, N., Davidson, R. J., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2013). The development of stranger fear in infancy and toddlerhood: normative development, individual differences, antecedents, and outcomes. Developmental Science, 16(6), 864–878. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12058.Google Scholar
- Currie, C., Zanotti, C., Morgan, A., Currie, D., Looze, M. de, Roberts, C., … Barnekow, V. (2012). Social determinants of health and well-being among young people: Health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) study: International report from the 2009/2010 survey. Social Determinants of Health and Well-Being among Young People: Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study: International Report from the 2009/2010 Survey. Google Scholar
- Eastman, M. L., Verhulst, B., Rappaport, L. M., Dirks, M., Sawyers, C., Pine, D. S., … Roberson-Nay, R. (2018). Age-related differences in the structure of genetic and environmental contributions to types of peer victimization. Behavior Genetics, 48(6), 421–431. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10519-018-9923-1.
- Green, D. M., & Swets, J. A. (1966). Signal detection theory and psychophysics. Oxford, U.K.: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Hosenbocus, S., & Chahal, R. (2012). A review of executive function deficits and pharmacological management in children and adolescents. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 21(3), 223–229.Google Scholar
- Kilford, E. J., Foulkes, L., Potter, R., Collishaw, S., Thapar, A., … Rice, F. (2015). Affective bias and current, past and future adolescent depression: a familial high risk study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 174, 265–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.11.046.
- Kretschmer, T., Veenstra, R., Branje, S., Reijneveld, S. A., Meeus, W. H. J., Deković, M., … Oldehinkel, A. J. (2018). How competent are adolescent bullying perpetrators and victims in mastering normative developmental tasks in early adulthood? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46(1), 41–56. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-017-0316-3.
- Maalouf, F. T., Clark, L., Tavitian, L., Sahakian, B. J., Brent, D., & Phillips, M. L. (2012). Bias to negative emotions: a depression state-dependent marker in adolescent major depressive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 198(1), 28–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2012.01.030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ouellet-Morin, I., Danese, A., Bowes, L., Shakoor, S., Ambler, A., Pariante, C. M., … Arseneault, L. (2011). A discordant monozygotic twin design shows blunted cortisol reactivity among bullied children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(6), 574–582.e3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2011.02.015.
- Perren, S., Ettekal, I., & Ladd, G. (2012). The impact of peer victimization on later maladjustment: mediating and moderating effects of hostile and self-blaming attributions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(1), 46–55. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02618.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Planalp, E. M., Du, H., Braungart-Rieker, J. M., & Wang, L. (2017). Growth curve modeling to studying change: a comparison of approaches using longitudinal dyadic data with distinguishable dyads. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 24(1), 129–147. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2016.1224088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Reijntjes, A., Kamphuis, J. H., Prinzie, P., Boelen, P. A., van der Schoot, M., & Telch, M. J. (2011). Prospective linkages between peer victimization and externalizing problems in children: a meta-analysis. Aggressive Behavior, 37(3), 215–222. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.20374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Robbins, T. W., James, M., Owen, A. M., Sahakian, B. J., McInnes, L., & Rabbitt, P. (1994). Cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery (CANTAB): a factor analytic study of a large sample of normal elderly volunteers. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 5(5), 266–281. https://doi.org/10.1159/000106735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sánchez, M. M., Young, L. J., Plotsky, P. M., & Insel, T. R. (2000). Distribution of corticosteroid receptors in the rhesus brain: relative absence of glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampal formation. Journal of Neuroscience, 20(12), 4657–4668. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.20-12-04657.2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sayer, A. G., & Klute, M. M. (2005). Analyzing Couples and Families: Multilevel Methods. In V. L. Bengtson, A. C. Acock, K. R. Allen, P. Dilworth-Anderson, & D. M. Klein (Eds.), Sourcebook of family theory & research (pp. 289–313). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412990172.d63.Google Scholar
- Schmidt, N. L., Van Hulle, C. A., Brooker, R. J., Meyer, L. R., Lemery-Chalfant, K., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2013). Wisconsin twin research: early development, childhood psychopathology, autism, and sensory over-responsivity. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16(1), 376–384. https://doi.org/10.1017/thg.2012.105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schreier, A., Wolke, D., Thomas, K., Horwood, J., Hollis, C., Gunnell, D., … Harrison, G. (2009). Prospective study of peer victimization in childhood and psychotic symptoms in a nonclinical population at age 12 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(5), 527–536. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.23.
- Schulz, K. P., Fan, J., Magidina, O., Marks, D. J., Hahn, B., & Halperin, J. M. (2007). Does the emotional go/no-go task really measure behavioral inhibition?: Convergence with measures on a non-emotional analog. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22(2), 151–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acn.2006.12.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Lucas, C. P., Dulcan, M. K., & Schwab-Stone, M. E. (2000). NIMH diagnostic interview schedule for children version IV (NIMH DISC-IV): description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(1), 28–38. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200001000-00014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Singham, T., Viding, E., Schoeler, T., Arseneault, L., Ronald, A., Cecil, C. M., … Pingault, J.-B. (2017). Concurrent and longitudinal contribution of exposure to bullying in childhood to mental health: the role of vulnerability and resilience. JAMA Psychiatry, 74(11), 1112–1119. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.2678.
- Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., Boivin, M., Cantin, S., Dionne, G., Tremblay, R. E., … Pérusse, D. (2011). A monozygotic twin difference study of friends’ aggression and children’s adjustment problems. Child Development, 82(2), 617–632. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01570.