Advertisement

Early Childhood Predictors of Anxiety in Early Adolescence

  • Jennifer L. Hudson
  • Kou Murayama
  • Lotte Meteyard
  • Talia Morris
  • Helen F. Dodd
Article

Abstract

This longitudinal study examined a multitude of early childhood predictors of anxiety symptoms and disorders over an 8-year period. The purpose of the study was to identify early life predictors of anxiety across childhood and early adolescence in a sample of at-risk children. The sample included 202 preschool children initially identified as behaviorally inhibited or uninhibited between the ages of 3 years 2 months and 4 years 5 months. Temperament and familial environment variables were assessed using observation and parent report at baseline. Anxiety symptoms and disorders were assessed using questionnaires and diagnostic interviews at baseline (age 4), and at age 6, 9 and 12 years. In line with our hypotheses, the findings showed that preschool children were more likely to experience anxiety symptoms and disorders over time i) when the child was inhibited, ii) when there was a history of maternal anxiety disorders or iii) when mothers displayed high levels of overinvolvement. Further, the study identified a significant interaction effect between temperament and maternal overvinvolvement such that behaviorally inhibited preschoolers had higher anxiety symptoms at age 12, only in the presence of maternal overinvolvement at age 4. The increased risk of anxiety in inhibited children was mitigated when mothers demonstrated low levels of overinvolvement at age 4. This study provides evidence of both additive and interactive effects of temperament and family environment on the development of anxiety and provides important information for the identification of families who will most likely benefit from targeted early intervention.

Keywords

Temperament Anxiety Internalising Parenting Attachment Behavioral inhibition 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

This project was supported by the Australian Research Council Discovery Grant (DP0342793) and Future Fellowship grant (Hudson: FT20100217). The study was also supported in part by JSPS KAKENHI (#16H06406 to K.M.) and the Leverhulme Trust (Grant # RL-2016-030 to K.M.).

Conflict of Interest

The authors report no financial interests or potential conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

The Macquarie University Human Ethics Committee approved the methods of the study.

Informed Consent

Mothers provided initial consent to participate in the study. Mothers and children both provided written, informed consent to participate in the 8 year follow-up.

Supplementary material

10802_2018_495_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 18 kb)

References

  1. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. N. (2015). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  2. Asbrand, J., Hudson, J. L., Schmitz, J., & Tuschen-Caffier, B. (2017). Maternal Parenting and Child Behaviour: An Observational Study of Childhood Social Anxiety Disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 41(4), 562–575.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-016-9828-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S. (2014). lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4. R package version, 1, 1–6 http://cran.r-project.org/package=lme4.Google Scholar
  4. Biesanz, J. C., Deeb-Sossa, N., Papadakis, A. A., Bollen, K. A., & Curran, P. J. (2004). The role of coding time in estimating and interpreting growth curve models. Psychological Methods, 9(1), 30–52.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989x.9.1.30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cassidy, J., & Marvin, R. S. (1992). Attachment organization in preschool children: Procedures and coding manual (4th ed.). University of Virginia: Unpulished manuscript.Google Scholar
  6. Chronis-Tuscano, A., Degnan, K. A., Pine, D. S., Perez-Edgar, K., Henderson, H. A., Diaz, Y., et al. (2009). Stable early maternal report of behavioral inhibition predicts lifetime social anxiety disorder in adolescence. Journal of Amer Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(9), 928–935.  https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.1090b1013e3181ae1009df.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clauss, J. A., & Blackford, J. U. (2012). Behavioral inhibition and risk for developing social anxiety disorder: a meta-analytic study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(10), 1066–1075.e1061.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2012.08.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Colonnesi, C., Draijer, E. M., Jan, J. M., Stams, G., Van der Bruggen, C. O., Bögels, S. M., & Noom, M. J. (2011). The relation between insecure attachment and child anxiety: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40(4), 630–645.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2011.581623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Core Team, R. (2013). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing http://www.r-project.org.Google Scholar
  10. Craske, M. G., Stein, M. B., Eley, T. C., Milad, M. R., Holmes, A., Rapee, R. M., & Wittchen, H.-U. (2017). Anxiety disorders. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 3, 17,024.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrdp.2017.24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Degnan, K. A., & Fox, N. A. (2007). Behavioral inhibition and anxiety disorders: Multiple levels of a resilience process. Development and Psychopathology, 19(3), 729–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DiNardo, P. A., Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (1994). Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule: Lifetime Version (ADIS-IV-L). Client Interview Schedules. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Dodd, H.F., Hudson, J.L., & Rapee, R.M. (2017). Temperament in Youth Internalizing Disorders. In Treatments for Psychological Problems and Syndromes (pp. 504–524): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Google Scholar
  14. Dubi, K., Rapee, R. M., Emerton, J. L., & Schniering, C. A. (2008). Maternal Modeling and the Acquisition of Fear and Avoidance in Toddlers: Influence of Stimulus Preparedness and Child Temperament. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(4), 499–512.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9195-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Eley, T. C., McAdams, T. A., Rijsdijk, F. V., Lichtenstein, P., Narusyte, J., Reiss, D., et al. (2015). The intergenerational transmission of anxiety: A children-of-twins study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(7), 630–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis: Guilford Press. New York: NY.Google Scholar
  17. Erskine, H. E., Moffitt, T. E., Copeland, W. E., Costello, E. J., Ferrari, A. J., Patton, G., et al. (2015). A heavy burden on young minds: the global burden of mental and substance use disorders in children and youth. Psychological medicine, 45(07), 1551–1563.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291714002888.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Frenkel, T. I., Fox, N. A., Pine, D. S., Walker, O. L., Degnan, K. A., & Chronis-Tuscano, A. (2015). Early childhood behavioral inhibition, adult psychopathology and the buffering effects of adolescent social networks: a twenty-year prospective study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(10), 1065–1073.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12390.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Garcia Coll, C., Kagan, J., & Reznick, J. S. (1984). Behavioral inhibition in young children. Child Development, 55(3), 1005–1019.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1130152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ginsburg, G. S., Drake, K. L., Tein, J. Y., Teetsel, R., & Riddle, M. A. (2015). Preventing onset of anxiety disorders in offspring of anxious parents: a randomized controlled trial of a family-based intervention. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(12), 1207–1214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hirshfeld, D. R., Rosenbaum, J. F., Biederman, J., Bolduc, E. A., Faraone, S. V., Snidman, N., et al. (1992). Stable behavioral inhibition and its association with anxiety disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 31(1), 103–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hudson, J. L. (2017). Prevention of anxiety disorders across the lifespan. JAMA Psychiatry.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.2430.
  23. Hudson, J. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2001). Parent–child interactions and anxiety disorders: an observational study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 1411–1427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hudson, J. L., & Dodd, H. F. (2012). Informing Early Intervention: Preschool Predictors of Anxiety Disorders in Middle Childhood. PLoS ONE, 7(8), e42359.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042359.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Hudson, J. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2004). From Temperament to Disorder: An Etiological Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. In R. G. Heimberg, C. C. Turk, & D. S. Menin (Eds.), Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Advances in Research and Practice. New York: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  26. Hudson, J. L., Dodd, H., & Bovopoulos, N. (2011a). Temperament, Family Environment and Anxiety in Preschool Children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(7), 939–951.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-011-9502-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hudson, J. L., Dodd, H. F., Lyneham, H. J., & Bovopoulous, N. (2011b). Temperament and family environment in the development of anxiety disorder: two-year follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(12), 1255–1264.e1251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. James, A.C., James, G., Cowdrey, F.A., Soler, A., & Choke, A. (2015). Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. The Cochrane Library.Google Scholar
  29. Johnson, V. C., Olino, T. M., Klein, D. N., Dyson, M. W., Bufferd, S. J., Durbin, C. E., et al. (2016). A longitudinal investigation of predictors of the association between age 3 and age 6 behavioural inhibition. Journal of Research in Personality, 63, 51–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2016.04.008.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Kuznetsova, A., Brockhoff, P.B. & Bojesen, R.H. (2014) lmerTest: Tests for random and fixed effects for linear mixed effect models (lmer objects of lme4 package). R package version 2.0–6. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lme4
  31. Lazarus, R., Dodd, H., Majdandzić, M., Vente, W., Morris, T., Byrow, Y.,. .. Hudson, J.L. (2016). The relationship between challenging parenting behaviour and childhood anxiety disorders (Vol. 190).Google Scholar
  32. Lewis-Morrarty, E., Degnan, K. A., Chronis-Tuscano, A., Rubin, K. H., Cheah, C. S., Pine, D. S., et al. (2012). Maternal over-control moderates the association between early childhood behavioral inhibition and adolescent social anxiety symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(8), 1363–1373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lewis-Morrarty, E., Degnan, K. A., Chronis-Tuscano, A., Pine, D. S., Henderson, H. A., & Fox, N. A. (2015). Infant attachment security and early childhood behavioral inhibition interact to predict adolescent social anxiety symptoms. Child Development, 86(2), 598–613.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12336.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Magana, A. B., Goldstein, M. J., Karno, M., Miklowitz, D. J., Jenkins, J., & Falloon, I. R. H. (1986). A brief method for assessing expressed emotion in relatives of psychiatric patients. Psychiatry Research, 17, 203–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Manassis, K. (2001). Child–parent relations: Attachment and anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, 255–272.Google Scholar
  36. Marsh, H. W., Pekrun, R., Parker, P. D., Murayama, K. Guo, J., Dicke, T., & Arens, A. K. (in press). The Murky Distinction Between Self-Concept and Self-Efficacy: Beware of Lurking Jingle-Jangle Fallacies. Journal of Educational Psychology.Google Scholar
  37. McLeod, B. D., Wood, J. J., & Weisz, J. R. (2007). Examining the association between parenting and childhood anxiety: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27(2), 155–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Merikangas, K. R., He, J.-P., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., et al. (2010). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(10), 980–989.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2010.05.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Muris, P. E. H. M., Brakel, A. M. L. V., Arntz, A., & Schouten, E. (2011). Behavioral inhibition as a risk factor for the development of childhood anxiety disorders: a longitudinal study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 157–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ollendick, T. H., & Grills, A. E. (2016). Perceived control, family environment, and the etiology of child anxiety—revisited. Behavior Therapy, 47(5)), 633–642.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2016.01.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Percy, R., Creswell, C., Garner, M., O’Brien, D., & Murray, L. (2016). Parents’ verbal communication and childhood anxiety: a systematic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 19(1), 55–75.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-015-0198-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Polanczyk, G. V., Salum, G. A., Sugaya, L. S., Caye, A., & Rohde, L. A. (2015). Annual research review: a meta-analysis of the worldwide prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(3), 345–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Prior, M., Smart, D., Sanson, A., & Oberklaid, F. (2000). Does shy-inhibited temperament in childhood lead to anxiety problems in adolescence? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(4), 461–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rapee, R. M., Kennedy, S., Ingram, M., Edwards, S., & Sweeney, L. (2005). Prevention and early intervention of anxiety disorders in inhibited preschool children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 488–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rapee, R. M., Schniering, C. A., & Hudson, J. L. (2009). Anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence: Origins and treatment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 335–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rubin, K. H., Burgess, K. B., & Hastings, P. D. (2002). Stability and social-behavioral consequences of toddlers’ inhibited temperament and parenting behaviors. Child Development, 73(2), 483–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rubin, K. H., Burgess, K. B., Dwyer, K. M., & Hastings, P. D. (2003). Predicting preschoolers’ externalizing behaviors from toddler temperament, conflict, and maternal negativity. Developmental psychology, 39(1), 164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sanson, A., Smart, D., Prior, M., Oberklaid, F., & Pedlow, R. (1994). The structure of temperament from age 3 to 7 years: age, sex, and sociodemographic influences. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 40, 233–252.Google Scholar
  49. Schwartz, C. E., Snidman, N., & Kagan, J. (1999). Adolescent social anxiety as an outcome of inhibited temperament in childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(8), 1008–1015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Silverman, W. K., & Albano, A. M. (1996). The Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children for DSM-IV: Child and Parent Versions. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  51. Spence, S. H. (1998). A measure of anxiety symptoms among children. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 36(5), 545–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Spence, S. H., Rapee, R., McDonald, C., & Ingram, M. (2001). The structure of anxiety symptoms among preschoolers. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 39(11), 1293–1316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Thomasgard, M., & Metz, W. (1999). Parent-child relationship disorders: what do the child vulnerability scale and the parent protection scale measure? Clinical Pediatrics, 38, 347–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Thomasgard, M., Metz, W., Edelbrock, C., & Shonkoff, J. P. (1995). Parent-child relationship disorders: I. Parental overprotection and the development of the Parent Protection Scale. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 16, 244–250.Google Scholar
  55. van Buuren, S., & Groothuis-Oudshoorn, K. (2011). Mice: multivariate imputation by chained equations in R. Journal of Statistical Software, 45(3), 1–67 URL https://www.jstatsoft.org/v45/i03/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. van der Bruggen, C. O., Stams, G. J. J., & Bogels, S. M. (2008). Research review: The relation between child and parent anxiety and parental control: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(12), 1257–1269.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01898.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Weems, C. F. (2008). Developmental trajectories of childhood anxiety: Identifying continuity and change in anxious emotion. Developmental Review, 28(4), 488–502.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2008.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Emotional Health, Department of PsychologyMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.School of Psychology and Clinical Language SciencesUniversity of ReadingReadingUK
  3. 3.Research InstituteKochi University of TechnologyKochiJapan

Personalised recommendations