Age-Adapted Stress Task in Preschoolers Does not Lead to Uniform Stress Responses
Acute stress response measures serve as an indicator of physiological functioning, but have previously led to contradictory results in young children due to age-related cortisol hypo-responsivity and methodological inconsistencies in assessment. The aim of this study was to investigate stress responses during a validated age-adapted socio-evaluative stress task in children aged 2-6 years in a child care environment and to detect socio-demographic, task- and child-related characteristics of stress responses. Stress responses were assessed in 323 children for salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), and in 328 children for changes in heart rate variability (HRV). These data were then associated with socio-demographic (e.g. SES), task-related (e.g. task length) and child-related characteristics (e.g. self-regulation) of stress responses using multilevel models. Analyses revealed elevated sympathetic reactivity (sAA: Coeff=0.053, p=0.004) and reduced HRV (Coeff=-0.465, p<0.001), but no hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response (Coeff=0.017, p=0.08) during the stress task. Child's age (Coeff=-5.82, p<0.001) and movement during the task (Coeff=-0.17, p=0.015) were associated with acute cortisol release, while diurnal sAA was associated with acute sAA release (Coeff=0.24, p<0.001). Age (Coeff=-0.15, p=0.006) and duration of the task (Coeff=0.13, p=0.015) were further associated with change of HRV under acute stress condition. Children showed inconsistent stress responses which contradicts the assumption of a parallel activation of both stress systems in a valid stress task for young children and might be explained by a pre-arousal to the task of young children in a child care setting. Further results confirm that child- and task-related conditions need to be considered when assessing stress responses in these young children.
KeywordsChildren SPLASHY Stress response Cortisol Alpha amylase Heart rate variability
We would like to thank all children, families and child care centers that contributed data to SPLASHY. We also thank all students and the research team for their valuable contribution.
The overall study was designed and performed by SK, OJ, JP and SM. SM designed the overall aim and JP the lab values/timing of the substudy. All authors conducted this research project and contributed to the data collection. AM assisted in statistical analyses. KS drafted and NM and SM revised the first version of the manuscript. All co-authors elaborated and commented on the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript. The last 4 authors have a shared last authorship.
The study was funded by a Sinergia grant from the SNF (Grant Number: CRSII3_147673) (http://p3.snf.ch/project-147673) and by the Jacobs Foundation.
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
The study was approved by the ethical committee of the canton of Vaud figuring as the leading committee representing all Swiss cantons, where children and their families were involved in recruitment and study participation (No 338/13 for main ethical committee of the canton of Vaud, Switzerland).
Parents of the recruited children provided written informed consent.
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