Advertisement

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 47–58 | Cite as

Consistency of Limited Prosocial Emotions Across Occasions, Sources, and Settings: Trait- or State-Like Construct in a Young Community Sample?

  • Raquel Seijas
  • Mateu Servera
  • Gloria García-Banda
  • G. Leonard BurnsEmail author
  • Jonathan Preszler
  • Christopher T. Barry
  • Kaylee Litson
  • Christian Geiser
Article

Abstract

Limited prosocial emotions (LPE, also referred to as callous-unemotional [CU] traits) are considered to reflect a more trait- than state-like construct. Our first objective was to determine the amount true score variance in CU/LPE that was consistent (trait consistency) over two occasions (12-month interval) of measurement versus specific (occasion-specificity) to each occasion. Our second objective was to determine the convergent validity of the consistent (trait) and occasion-specific (state) variance in CU/LPE symptom ratings within and across settings. Mothers, fathers, primary teachers, and ancillary teachers rated the CU/LPE symptoms in sample of 811 Spanish children (55% boys) on two occasions (i.e., end of first and second grades). CU/LPE symptom ratings showed more trait consistency than occasion-specificity for mothers and fathers, slightly more occasion-specificity than trait consistency for primary teachers, and much more occasion-specificity than trait consistency for ancillary teachers. Convergent validity for trait consistency was strong for fathers with mothers but weaker for primary with ancillary teachers. There was essentially no convergent validity for either trait consistency or occasion-specificity across home and school settings. CU/LPE symptom ratings within this age range represented a more trait-like construct for mothers and fathers and more state-like construct for primary teachers and ancillary teachers. In contrast, earlier studies showed ADHD and ODD ratings to be trait-like within and across home and school. The study of CU/LPE in young children should therefore include multiple sources in multiple settings across occasions to better understand the consistent and occasion-specific nature of the CU/LPE construct.

Keywords

Prosocial emotions Limited prosocial emotions specifier Callous unemotional traits Latent state-trait measurement models 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Two Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness grants, PSI2011-23254 and PSI2014-52605-R (Spanish Government), and a predoctoral fellowship co-financed by the European Social Fund and the Balearic Islands Government (FPI/1451/2012) supported this research. Award number R01DA034770-01 from the National Institutes on Drug Abuse (NIDA) supported Christian Geiser. We thank Cristina Trias and Cristina Solano for their help in data collection.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors of the current study have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

The research protocol was approved by the IRB of the University of the Balearic Islands.

Informed Consent

Mothers, fathers, and teachers provided written informed consent for participation in the study.

Supplementary material

10802_2018_415_MOESM1_ESM.docx (96 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 95 kb)

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barker, E. D., & Salekin, R. T. (2012). Irritable oppositional defiance and callous unemotional traits: Is the association partially explained by peer victimization? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 1167–1175.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02579.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Becker, S. P., Luebbe, A. M., Fite, P. J., Greening, L., & Stoppelbein, L. (2013). Oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in relation to psychopathic traits and aggression among psychiatrically hospitalized children: ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator. Aggressive Behavior, 39, 201–211.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benesch, C., Görtz-Dorten, A., Breuer, D., & Döpfner, M. (2014). Assessment of callous-unemotional traits in 6 to 12-year-old children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder by parent ratings. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 36, 519–529.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-014-9420-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burns, G. L., Lee, S. (2010). Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory--Parent and Teacher versions 5.0. Pullman, WA: Author.Google Scholar
  6. Byrd A. L., Hawes S. W., Loeber R. & Pardini D. A. (2016). Interpersonal callousness from childhood to adolescence: Developmental trajectories and early risk factors. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2016.1144190.
  7. Courvoisier, D. S., Nussbeck, F. W., Eid, M., Geiser, C., & Cole, D. A. (2008). Analyzing the convergent validity of states and traits: Development and application of multimethod latent state-trait models. Psychological Assessment, 20, 270–280.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ezpeleta, L., Granero, R., Osa, N., & Domènech, J.M. (2015). Clinical characteristics of preschool children with oppositional defiant disorder and callous-unemotional traits. PLoS One, 10, e0139346.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139346.
  9. Fanti, K. A., Colins, O. F., Andershed, H., & Sikki, M. (2017). Stability and change in callous-unemotional traits: Longitudinal associations with potential individual and context risk and protective factors. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 87, 62–75.  https://doi.org/10.1037/ort0000143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fontaine, N. M., Rijsdijk, F. V., McCrory, E. J., & Viding, E. (2010). Etiology of different developmental trajectories of callous-unemotional traits. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 656–664.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2010.03.014.Google Scholar
  11. Frick P. J. (2004). The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits: Retrieved from http://psyc.uno.edu/Frick%20Lab/ICU.html
  12. Frick, P. J., Cornell, A. H., Barry, C. T., Bodin, S. D., & Dane, H. E. (2003). Callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems in the prediction of conduct problem severity, aggression, and self-report of delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 457–470.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023899703866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Frick, P. J., & Hare, R. D. (2001). Antisocial process screening device: APSD. Toronto: MultiHealth Systems.Google Scholar
  14. Frick, P. J., & Moffitt, T. E. (2010). A Proposal to the DSM-V Childhood Disorders and the ADHD and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Workgroup to Include a Specifier to the Diagnosis of Conduct Disorder Based on the Presence of Callous-Unemotional Traits. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  15. Frick, P. J., Ray, J. V., Thornton, L. C., & Kahn, R. E. (2014). Can callous-unemotional traits enhance the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of serious conduct problems in children and adolescents? A comprehensive review. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 1–57.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Frick, P. J., Stickle, T. R., Dandreaux, D. M., Farrell, J. M., & Kimonis, E. R. (2005). Callous-unemotional traits in predicting the severity and stability of conduct problems and delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 471–487.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-005-5728-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Geiser, C., Hintz, F. A., Burns, G. L., & Servera, M. (2017). Structural equation modeling of multiple-indicator multimethod-multioccasion data: A primer. Personality and Individual Differences. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.04.032.
  18. Graziano, P. A., Ros, R., Haas, S., Hart, K., Slavec, J., Waschbusch, D., & Garcia, A. (2016). Assessing callous-unemotional traits in preschool children with disruptive behavior problems using peer reports. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 45, 201–214.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2014.971460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Haas, S. M., Becker, S. P., Epstein, J. N., & Frick, P. J. (2017). Callous-unemotional traits are uniquely associated with poorer peer functioning in school-aged children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-017-0330-5.
  20. Hawes, D. J., Dadds, M. R., Brennan, J., Rhodes, T., & Cauchi, A. (2013). Revisiting the treatment of conduct problems in children with callous-unemotional traits. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 47, 646–653.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867413484092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Herpers, P. C., Klip, H., Rommelse, N. N., Taylor, M. J., Greven, C. U., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2017). Taxometric analyses and predictive accuracy of callous-unemotional traits regarding quality of life and behavior problems in non-conduct disorder diagnoses. Psychiatry Research, 253, 351–359.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.04.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jezior, K. L., McKenzie, M. E., & Lee, S. S. (2016). Narcissism and callous-unemotional traits prospectively predict child conduct problems. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 45, 579–590.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2014.982280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kahn, R. E., Frick, P. J., Youngstrom, E., Findling, R. L., & Youngstrom, J. K. (2012). The effects of including a callous–unemotional specifier for the diagnosis of conduct disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 271–282.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02463.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kimonis, E. R., Fanti, K. A., Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, X., Mertan, B., Goulter, N., & Katsimicha, E. (2016). Can callous-unemotional traits be reliably measured in preschoolers? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44, 625–638.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-0075-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kimonis, E. R., Frick, P. J., & Barry, C. T. (2004). Callous-unemotional traits and delinquent peer affiliation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(6), 956–966.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.72.6.956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lei, P.-W., & Wu, Q. (2012). Estimation in structural equation modeling. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Handbook of structural equation modeling (pp. 164–180). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  27. Litson, K., Geiser, C., Burns, G. L., & Servera, M. (2016). Trait and state variance in multi-informant assessments of ADHD and academic impairment in Spanish first-grade children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2015.1118693.
  28. Little, T. D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  29. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2017). Mplus User’s Guide (8th ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén and Muthén.Google Scholar
  30. Pardini, D., Stepp, S., Hipwell, A., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Loeber, R. (2012). The clinical utility of the proposed DSM-5 callous-unemotional subtype of conduct disorder in young girls. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51, 62–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2011.10.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Preszler, J., Burns, G. L., Litson, K., Geiser, C., & Servera, M. (2017b). Trait and state variance in oppositional defiant disorder symptoms: A multi-source investigation with Spanish children. Psychological Assessment, 29, 135–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Preszler, J., Burns, G. L., Litson, K., Geiser, C., Servera, M. & Becker, S. P. (2017a). How consistent is sluggish cognitive tempo across occasions, sources, and settings? Evidence from latent state-trait modeling. Assessment. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191116686178.
  33. Ray, J. V., Frick, P. J., Thornton, L. C., Steinberg, L., & Cauffman, E. (2016). Positive and negative item wording and its influence on the assessment of callous-unemotional traits. Psychological Assessment, 28, 394–404.  https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Seijas, R., Servera, M., García-Banda, G., Barry, C. T., & Burns, G. L. (2017). Evaluation of a four-item DSM-5 limited prosocial emotions specifier scale within and across settings with Spanish children. Psychological Assessment.  https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000496.
  35. Song, J. H., Waller, R., Hyde, L. W., & Olson, S. L. (2015). Early callous-unemotional behavior, theory-of-mind, and a fearful/inhibited temperament predict externalizing problems in middle and late childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44, 1205–1215.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-0099-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Steyer, R., Mayer, A., Geiser, C., & Cole, D. A. (2015). A theory of states and traits—revised. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 11, 71–98  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wall, T. D., Frick, P. J., Fanti, K. A., Kimonis, E. R., & Lordos, A. (2016). Factors differentiating callous-unemotional children with and without conduct problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57, 976–983  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Waller, R., Shaw, D. S., Forbes, E. E., & Hyde, L. W. (2015). Understanding early contextual and parental risk factors for the development of limited prosocial emotions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(6), 1025–1039.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-014-9965-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Willoughby, M. T., Mills-Koonce, W. R., Waschbusch, D. A., Gottfredson, N. C., & Investigators, F. L. P. (2014). An examination of the parent report version of the inventory of callous-unemotional traits in a community sample of first-grade children. Assessment, 22, 76–85.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191114534886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raquel Seijas
    • 1
  • Mateu Servera
    • 1
  • Gloria García-Banda
    • 1
  • G. Leonard Burns
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author return OK on get
  • Jonathan Preszler
    • 2
  • Christopher T. Barry
    • 2
  • Kaylee Litson
    • 4
  • Christian Geiser
    • 4
  1. 1.University of the Balearic IslandsPalma (Balearic Islands)Spain
  2. 2.Washington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  4. 4.Utah State UniversityLoganUSA

Personalised recommendations