Advertisement

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 46, Issue 5, pp 935–950 | Cite as

Mapping the Growth of Heterogeneous Forms of Externalizing Problem Behavior Between Early Childhood and Adolescence:A Comparison of Parent and Teacher Ratings

  • Sheryl L. OlsonEmail author
  • Pamela Davis-Kean
  • Meichu Chen
  • Jennifer E. Lansford
  • John E. Bates
  • Gregory S. Pettit
  • Kenneth A. Dodge
Article

Abstract

We compared long-term growth patterns in teachers’ and mothers’ ratings of Overt Aggression, Covert Aggression, Oppositional Defiance, Impulsivity/inattention, and Emotion Dysregulation across developmental periods spanning kindergarten through grade 8 (ages 5 to 13 years). We also determined whether salient background characteristics and measures of child temperament and parenting risk differentially predicted growth in discrete categories of child externalizing symptoms across development. Participants were 549 kindergarten-age children (51% male; 83% European American; 17% African American) whose problem behaviors were rated by teachers and parents each successive year of development through 8th grade. Latent growth curve analyses were performed for each component scale, contrasting with an overall index of externalizing, in a piecewise fashion encompassing two periods of development: K-1and grades 1–8. Our findings showed that there were meaningful differences and similarities between informants in their levels of concern about specific forms of externalizing problems, patterns of change in problem behavior reports across development, and in the extent to which their ratings of specific problems were associated with distal and proximal covariates. Thus, these data provided novel information about issues that have received scant empirical attention and have important implications for understanding the development and prevention of children’s long-term externalizing problems.

Keywords

Externalizing problems Parent-teacher Growth patterns Gender Ethnicity SES 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the individuals who have participated in this research.

Funding

This project was possible due to funding provided by the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the Development of Learning Sciences-Integrative Research Activities for Developmental Science grant (CAPCA Center) to the University of Michigan (BCS-0818478). The Child Development Project has been funded by grants MH42498, MH56961, MH57024, and MH57095 from the National Institute of Mental Health, HD30572 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and DA016903 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Kenneth A. Dodge is supported by Senior Scientist award 2 K05 DA015226 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10802_2018_407_MOESM1_ESM.docx (104 kb)
Supplemental Table 1 (DOCX 104 kb)
10802_2018_407_MOESM2_ESM.docx (44 kb)
Supplemental Table 2 (DOCX 44 kb)
10802_2018_407_MOESM3_ESM.docx (47 kb)
Supplemental Table 3 (DOCX 47 kb)

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the teacher’s report form and 1991 profile. Burlington: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barker, E. D., Seguin, J. R., White, H. R., Bates, M. E., Lacourse, E., Carbonneau, R., & Tremblay, R. (2007). Developmental trajectories of male physical violence and theft. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 592–599.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc54.5.592.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Bates, J. E., & Bayles, K. (1984). Objective and subjective components in mothers’ perception of their children from age 6 months to 3 years. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 30, 111–130.Google Scholar
  6. Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., Dodge, K. A., & Ridge, B. (1998). Interaction of temperamental resistance to control and restrictive parenting in the development of externalizing behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 34, 982–995.Google Scholar
  7. Bates, J. E., Schemerhorn, A. C., & Petersen, I. T. (2014). Temperament concepts in developmental psychopathology. In M. Lewis & K. D. Rudolph (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (pp. 311–329). NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bezdjian, S., Krueger, R. F., Derringer, J., Malone, S., McGue, M., & Iacono, W. G. (2011). The structure of DSM-IV ADHD, ODD, and CD criteria in adolescent boys: a hierarchical approach. Psychiatry Research, 188, 411–421.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Caldwell, B., & Bradley, R. (1984). HOME observation for measurement of the environment. Little Rock: Center for Child Development and Education.Google Scholar
  10. Cicchetti, D. (2006). Development and psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (2nd ed.). Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  11. Cole, P. M., Hall, S. E., & Radzioch, A. M. (2009). Emotion dysregulation and the development of serious misconduct. In S. L. Olson & A. J. Sameroff (Eds.), Biopsychosocial regulatory processes in the development of childhood behavior problems (pp. 186–211). NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crick, N. R., & Gropeter, J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66, 710–722.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. De Los Reyes, A., Augenstein, T., Wang, M., Thomas, S. A., Drabnick, A. G., Burgers, D. E., & Rabinowitz, J. (2015). The validity of the multi-informant approach to assessing child and adolescent mental health. Psychological Bulletin, 141, 858–900.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Deater-Deckard, K., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1996). Physical discipline among African American and European American mothers: links to children’s externalizing behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 32, 1065–1072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deater-Deckard, K., Petrill, S., & Thompson, L. (2007). Anger/frustration, task persistence, and conduct problems in childhood: a behavioral genetic analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 48, 80–87.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01653.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Dick, D. M., Viken, R. J., Kaprio, J., Pulkkinen, L., & Rose, R. J. (2005). Understanding the covariation among childhood externalizing symptoms: genetic and environmental influences on conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 219–229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1990). Mechanisms in the cycle of violence. Science, 260, 1678–1683.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.2270481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dodge, K.A., Coie, J.D., & Lynam, D. (2006). Aggression and antisocial behavior in youth. In Damon, W. (Series Ed.) & Eisenberg, N. (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: vol 3. Social, emotional, and personality development 6th edn. (pp. 719–988). NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A. C., Klebanov, P., et al. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43, 1428–1446.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.6.14328.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Ferdinand, R. F., van der Ende, J., & Verhulst, F. C. (2007). Parent-teacher disagreement regarding psychopathology in children: a risk factor for adverse outcome? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 115, 48–55.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-006-0581-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Frick, P. J., Ray, J. V., Thornton, L. C., & Kahn, R. E. (2014). A developmental psychology approach to understanding callous-unemotional traits in children and adolescents with serious conduct problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 537–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gershoff, E. T., & Grogan-Kaylor, A. (2016). Spanking and child outcomes: old controversies and new meta-analyses. Journal of Family Psychology, 30, 453–469.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hay, D. F. (2017). The early development of human aggression. Child Development Perspectives, 11, 102–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hinshaw, S. P. (2002). Intervention research, theoretical mechanisms, and causal processes related to externalizing behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 789–818.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hollingshead, A. A. (1979). Four-factor index of social status. Unpublished manuscript. New Haven: Yale University.Google Scholar
  26. Jackson, M.F., Barth, J.M., Powell, N., & Lochman, J.E. (2006). Classroom contextual effects of race on children’s peer nominations. Child Development, 77, 1325–1337.Google Scholar
  27. Jester, J. M., Nigg, J. T., Adams, K., Fitzgerald, H. E., Puttler, L. I., Wong, M., & Zucker, R. A. (2005). Inattention/hyperactivity and aggression from early childhood to adolescence: heterogeneity of trajectories and differential influence of family environment characteristics. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 99–125.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Keiley, M. K., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Pettit, G. S. (2000). A cross-domain growth analysis: externalizing behaviors during 8 years of child development. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 161–179.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Kerr, D. C. R., Lunkenheimer, E. S., & Olson, S. L. (2007). Assessment of child problem behaviors by multiple informants: a longitudinal study from preschool to school entry. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 967–975.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01776.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. King, K. M., Luk, J. W., Witkewitz, K., Racz, S., McMahon, R. J., Wu, J., & The CPPRG. (2016). Externalizing behavior across childhood as represented by parents and teachers: a partial measurement invariance model. Assessment, 1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1177/107319111666038.
  31. Lahey, B., Rathouz, P., Van Hulle, C., Urbano, R., Krueger, R., Applegate, B., et al. (2008). Testing structural models of DSM-IV symptoms of common forms of child and adolescent psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 187–206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Martel, M. M., Nikolas, M., Jernigan, K., Friderici, K., & Nigg, J. T. (2012). Diversity on pathway to common childhood disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 1223–1236.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. McLoyd, V. C., Mistry, R. S., & Hardaway, C. R. (2014). Poverty and children’s development: familial processes as mediating influences. In E. T. Gershoff, R. S. Mistry, & D. A. Crosby (Eds.), Societal contexts of child development: pathways of influence and implications for practice and policy (pp. 109–124). NY: Oxford Press.Google Scholar
  34. Miner, J. L., & Clarke-Stewart, K. A. (2008). Trajectories of externalizing behavior from age 2 to age 9: relations with gender, temperament, ethnicity, parenting, and rater. Child Development, 44, 771–786.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.44.3.771.Google Scholar
  35. Muthén, L. K. & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2015). Mplus user’s guide, 7th edn. Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  36. Okonofua, J. A., & Eberhardt, J. L. (2015). Two strikes: race and the disciplining of young students. Psychological Science, 26, 617–624.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797615570365.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Olson, S. L., Sameroff, A. J., Lansford, J., Sexton, H., Davis-Kean, P., Pettit, G., et al. (2013). Deconstructing the externalizing spectrum: growth patterns in oppositional behavior, physical aggression and covert aggression between school entry and early adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 817–842.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Olson, S. L., Choe, D. E., & Sameroff, A. S. (2017). Trajectories of child externalizing problems between ages 3 and 10 years: contributions of children’s early effortful control, theory of mind, and parenting experiences. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 1333–1351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., & Dodge, K. A. (1997). Supportive parenting, ecological context, and children’s adjustment: a seven-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 68, 908–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Rescorla, L. A., Bochicchio, L., Achenbach, T. M., Ivanova, M., Almqvist, F., Begovac, I., et al. (2014). Parent teacher-agreement on children’s problems in 21 societies. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 43, 627–642.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Rommelse, N. N. J., Altink, M. E., Fliers, E. A., Martin, N. C., Buschgens, C. J., Hartmen, C. A., et al. (2009). Comorbid problems in ADHD: degree of association, shared endophenotypes, and formation of distinct subtypes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 793–804.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-009-9312-6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Sameroff, A. J. (2009). Transactional processes in development. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  43. Sanislow, C. A., Pine, D. S., Quinn, K. J., Kozak, M. J., Garvey, M. A., Heinssen, R. K., et al. (2010). Developing constructs for psychopathology research: research domain criteria. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 631–639.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 147–177.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Singh, A. L., & Waldman, I. D. (2010). The etiology of associations between negative emotionality and externalizing disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2, 376–388.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Stormshak, E. A., Bierman, K. L., & The Conduct Problem Prevention Research Group. (1998). The implications of different developmental patterns of disruptive behavior problems for school adjustment. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 451–467.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Strassberg, Z., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1992). The longitudinal relation between parental conflict strategies and children's sociometric standing in kindergarten. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 38, 477–493.Google Scholar
  48. Straus, M. A. (1979). Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: the Conflict Tactics (CT) scale. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 41, 75–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Supplee, L. H., Skuban, E. M., Shaw, D. S., & Prout, J. (2009). Emotion regulation strategies and later externalizing behavior among European American and African American children. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 393–415.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Tackett, J., Krueger, R., Iocono, W. M. & McGue, M. (2005). Symptom based subfactors of DSM-defined conduct disorder: evidence for etiologic distinctions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 483–484.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Wakschlag, L., Choi, S. W., Carter, A., Hullsiek, H., Burns, J., McCarthy, K., Leibenluft, E., & Briggs-Cowan, M. (2012). Defining the parameters of temper loss in early childhood: implications for developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 1099–1108.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.0259.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Duke UniversityDurhamUSA
  3. 3.Indiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA
  4. 4.Auburn UniversityAuburnUSA

Personalised recommendations